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Capitol Avenue Historic District

Jefferson City, Cole County, MO

The Cole County Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [‡]


The Capitol Avenue Historic District is a largely residential area centered on Capitol Avenue between Adams and Cherry Streets in Jefferson City, Missouri. The Capitol Avenue Historic District is located in the 400-700 blocks of Capitol Avenue, the 100-200 blocks of Jackson, Lafayette and Marshall Streets, the 400 and 700 blocks of E. High Street and the 200 block of Cherry Street. The Capitol Avenue Historic District developed between downtown Jefferson City and the Missouri State Penitentiary (MSP), with MSP located across the street from the district in the 600 block of State Street, 100 block of Lafayette Street and the 700 block of Capitol Avenue. Capitol Avenue lies on the highest ground between these two important economic engines of early Jefferson City, and is a significant east-west thoroughfare. The buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District continue to reflect development of the neighborhood from 1870 to 1945, and retain a high degree of integrity from the various periods of development. The wide variety of architectural styles in the Capitol Avenue Historic District include a number of Italianate and Queen Anne houses, as well as Classical, Colonial, Gothic and Spanish Revival style buildings. Italian Renaissance, Second Empire, Craftsman Bungalow and Art Deco styles are also represented within the district. The houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District relate to one another through the predominant use of brick, the rhythm of the spacing between buildings, similar setback, similar height and use of ornamentation. Although unified through the use of brick, the Capitol Avenue Historic District is distinguished by the variety of complex forms, roof shapes and ornamentation exhibited. The rhythm of porches used on houses throughout the Capitol Avenue Historic District is another significant feature, with the majority of the porches being 1-story in height on mostly two-story houses. The majority of the buildings exhibit ornamentation at the cornice and on the front porch, while several also feature stained or beveled glass windows, terra cotta, wooden garlands, or tile or stone decorations. There are a total of 128 buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, 107 contributing, 9 previously listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and 12 non-contributing. The integrity of the Capitol Avenue Historic District is high, as the appearance of the district is very similar to that of the time of construction, and 94% of the main buildings are contributing resources. The Capitol Avenue Historic District includes 96 houses and duplexes, six apartment buildings (minimum four units), four office buildings, three manufacturing/warehouse buildings, two former school buildings, one former grocery store, one active church, one funeral home and 14 outbuildings. A number of the houses are currently in use as offices; they are counted as houses in this document as they continue to reflect their original residential character. The houses being used as offices are in excellent to good condition and exhibit high levels of integrity. Owner occupied houses are generally in good to fair condition, and residential rental properties are typically in fair to poor condition, needing paint and other maintenance. The oldest building in the Capitol Avenue Historic District was constructed circa 1830, the most recent contributing building in 1947.


The Capitol Avenue Historic District includes buildings along four blocks of Capitol Avenue, a major traffic way in the Central East Side Neighborhood. The Capitol Avenue Historic District also includes buildings on the 100 and 200 blocks of the intersecting north-south streets (Jackson, Marshall, Lafayette and Cherry Streets) on State Street, and on the 400 and 700 blocks of East High Street. The entrance to the Capitol Avenue Historic District from the traditional downtown area to the west at Adams Street is the boundary of the Missouri State Capitol Area Historic District. State Street (formerly Water Street) lies parallel to and north of Capitol Avenue, and establishes part of the district's northern boundary. The east side of the 100 block of Lafayette Street and the north side of the 700 block of Capitol Avenue are bounded by the tall stone wall marking the boundary of the penitentiary. The east side of Cherry Street is the eastern boundary. The southern boundary is marked by commercial buildings associated with development along East High Street. Capitol Avenue is one of the primary streets in the neighborhood, partly because it is at a higher elevation than the other streets and its location between downtown and MSP. The Capitol Avenue Historic District's primary significance is the quality of the architecture of the homes on this street and the number of mature trees lining the avenue.

The street pattern in this neighborhood is based on a grid pattern, with alleys dividing the blocks from east to west. Lots in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are typically long and narrow, extending from the street to a rear alley. The alleys are an important part of the transportation network, allowing access to service areas and parking to the rear of buildings. Development of parking in the rear of buildings that have been converted to commercial use has resulted in conversions that are barely noticeable from the street. The only indication that these houses are now in commercial use is generally a sign on the front of the building or in the front yard. City code limits the size of the signs, which are typically made of painted wood, and interior lighted or neon signs do not currently exist in the district. Corner lots in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are generally larger than lots in the interior of the block. Many of the larger homes are therefore located on corner lots, as well as a small number of apartment buildings. Sidewalks are provided throughout the neighborhood, except on State Street. Due to the hilly terrain, several retaining walls remain intact, usually of stone or concrete. One low retaining wall on Lafayette Street combines stone with wrought iron, an unusually attractive example in this neighborhood. Very little open space is found within the district, as almost all of the lots were developed and retain their historic structures.

The trees lining Capitol Avenue are one of the district's remarkable features, second only to the variety and architectural integrity exhibited by the area's buildings. Architectural styles represented in the Capitol Avenue Historic District include Italianate and Queen Anne houses, as well as Classical, Colonial, Gothic and Spanish Revival, Italianate Renaissance, Second Empire, Craftsman and Art Deco. The majority of the homes in the district are vernacular, or not identified with any distinct architectural style, although the area is known for its architectural character. One unifying theme among the wide variety of architectural styles is that most of the buildings are constructed of red brick, even though a number of yellow brick, painted brick and stone buildings are scattered throughout the district. The rhythm of the grid patterned streets with street trees and sidewalks, combined with the fairly consistent spacing and setback of the houses, as well as the wide spread use of front porches has created a cohesive yet architecturally diverse streetscape along Capitol Avenue and its connecting streets.[1]

The oldest house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is the circa 1830 Parsons House at 105 Jackson Street. The newest contributing building in the district was constructed in 1947 — the former Missouri Baptist Building and current Jefferson City Area Chamber of Commerce Building. Most of the buildings are 2-story, with a few 1-story houses scattered throughout the neighborhood. The majority of the buildings were constructed and retain their appearance as houses. Four apartment buildings (one now converted to office use), one former grocery store (now offices), three former manufacturing facilities (one now a distribution center and one vacant), one former private school (now offices and apartments) and one funeral home (originally a house) are also contributing resources in the district. Outbuildings are mostly garages, and few in number. A historically significant garage is located at 210 Lafayette Street, a former stable or carriage house constructed of brick and in excellent condition.

Few changes have occurred since the district was fully constructed. All but 6 of the 113 main buildings in the district, or 95%, are contributing resources. Of the outbuildings, 50% (6 of 12) are contributing resources. A few houses along State Street have been demolished, due to their neglected condition and proximity to MSP, leaving empty lots. Three non-contributing buildings were constructed at 428, 619 and 621 Capitol Avenue during the 1960s and 1970s. The Missouri Chamber of Commerce offices at 428 Capitol Avenue is the most noticeable of the non-contributing buildings, due to its height and modern architectural style. The two buildings at 619 and 621 Capitol Avenue are 1-story office buildings, built of red or dark colored brick at the same setback as the surrounding buildings, and so are not too obtrusive. An apartment building at 126 Marshall Street is not noticeable, as its location is significantly lower in elevation than Capital Avenue, and shielded from State Street by the Shryack-Hirst Grocery Company building at 520 State Street. The building at 410 Rear Capitol Avenue is barely visible from the street, as the front part of the lot is significantly higher than Capitol Avenue, and the building is set far back from the street, abutting the alley. A house at 600 State Street is non-contributing due to alterations over time, but retains a form, scale and setback similar to other neighborhood houses.

In assessing the integrity of buildings within the Capitol Avenue Historic District, a baseline was established, setting a minimum threshold that each building had to meet in order to be considered as a contributing resource. The building had to retain its original location, overall form and massing, fenestration pattern, roof shape, and reflect characteristics typical of its style and/or period of significance. Historic alterations were considered, and allowed on contributing buildings as long as they did not significantly diminish the overall appearance of the building as representative of its period and/or style. Modern alterations were allowed on contributing buildings only when they effected a relatively minor portion of the building's exterior surface. The building had to contribute to the character of the surrounding block of buildings.

The majority of buildings in the district retain integrity far above this minimum threshold. In a handful of instances, historic alterations such as the application of stucco or other historic artificial siding had to be considered. Replacement windows were not a significant factor for the majority of buildings. Porch alterations in the district were not numerous and usually minor, involving replacement posts and/or a concrete floor. A small number of buildings were determined to be ineligible due to the cumulative effect of alterations, particularly due to recent alterations. A small number were determined to be eligible despite evolutionary changes over time.

Nine buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District have already been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Lester S. and Missouri "Zue" Gordon Parker House, cellar and former carriage house at 624 Capitol Avenue was listed on June 15, 2000. The Jefferson Female Seminary at 416 and 420 State Street was listed on February 24, 2000. The former Missouri State Penitentiary Warden's House, or Marmaduke House, was listed on October 24,1991. Ivy Terrace, at 500 Capitol Avenue, was listed on the National Register on March 16, 1990, along with a non-contributing garage. Grace Episcopal Church was listed in 1975 as part of the Missouri State Capitol Historic District. Immediately adjacent to but not included in the district is the Claud D. and Berenice Sinclair Grove House, at 505 State Street, listed on November 15, 2002.[2] Nine properties in the Capitol Avenue Historic District have been designated as Local Landmarks by the Jefferson City Historic Preservation Commission since the program began in 1993. These properties, with the year they were designated as Local Landmarks, are as follows: the Parson's House, 105 Jackson Street (1993); the Marmaduke or Warden's House, 700 Capitol Avenue (1993); Grace Episcopal Church, 217 Adams Street (1996); Elizabeth Allen Ewing House, 512 Capitol Avenue (1999); James A. Houchin House, 611 Capitol Avenue (1999); Lester Shepard Parker House, 624 Capitol Avenue (2000); J. Henry Asel, Sr. and Hilda Asel House, 210 Lafayette Street (2000); Dix Apartments, 623 Capitol Avenue (2003); and the Jefferson Female Seminary, 416-420 State Street (2003).

Other important buildings in the district are worth noting. The oldest house in the district, known locally as the Parsons House, was built circa 1830. This part stone, part log house is the only building in the district, and probably in Jefferson City, constructed in the French Colonial architectural style. The Parsons House is intact architecturally, but is in need of repair. Another important house is the W.C. Young House at 512 Capitol Avenue. Young is believed to have been the contractor for this house and several of the neighboring houses as well. Constructed circa 1873, this is but one of a number of side hall type houses in the district. The Buescher Funeral Home began as an Italianate house built circa 1868. The Bella Vista Apartments were built in 1928 in the Spanish Revival style. The building's terra cotta decorative elements and tile roof are colorful reminders of this distinctive style, as the building is intact and in good repair. One of only two Art Deco buildings in the district is the Prince Edward Apartments at 208 Marshall Street. Constructed in 1930, this building retains all of its streamlined Art Deco elements.


The Capitol Avenue Historic District, part of Jefferson City's Central East Side, is locally significant in the areas of Community Planning and Development and Architecture. Many of the oldest, largest and most architecturally distinguished buildings in the neighborhood are located in the district. The Capitol Avenue Historic District's buildings are a remarkably intact depiction of the redevelopment that began following the Civil War and continued well into the 20th century. The area attracted development because of its proximity to the Missouri State Capitol, the Missouri State Penitentiary and the light industries that were constructed in and around the penitentiary. These resources attracted business and government executives, politicians and professionals who constructed homes in popular American architectural styles. Most of the main buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District (94) were constructed prior to 1915. Proximity to downtown and state office buildings resulted in the construction of several apartment buildings in the 1920s. After 1932, the character and use of the district began to change, when a new ordinance zoned the area for light industrial, commercial and multi-family residential use. This zoning change caused the conversion of several single-family residential properties to commercial and high-density residential use, and also led to the construction of 9 buildings, primarily of commercial and multi-family character. The district contains high style examples of architectural styles popular during the late-19th and early-20th century including Missouri-German Vernacular, Foursquare and Side Hall Plan house types, Victorian, Eclectic Movement, Bungalow, Spanish Revival and Art Deco styles. The district also has notable examples of vernacular building forms such as the cluster of side hall residences in the 500 block of Capitol Avenue. The period of significance is c.1870 to 1947. These dates encompass the period when the area developed into a densely built district of middle and upper class houses supported by nearby commercial and industrial enterprises.

The Capitol Avenue Historic District was surveyed as part of the Jefferson City Historic East survey, completed in September, 1992. Much of the information contained in this section was derived from survey documentation. The Capitol Avenue Historic District is overwhelmingly residential in character, as shopping was available nearby in the downtown and East High Street commercial areas. Three churches are located within one block west, and one is located within the district. The schools that serve this area are located several blocks outside the district. One of the most significant influences on the district's development was the Missouri State Penitentiary (MSP), the outer wall of which forms a boundary for two blocks of the district. Because of the fortunes made by using cheap prison labor, a number of owners and managers of manufacturing interests within MSP chose to construct elaborate homes on Capitol Avenue, near their place of business. Two former manufacturing facilities were constructed outside of MSP and remain within the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The area is largely developed, with little open space. A few vacant lots exist due to demolitions of houses in recent decades, largely located on State Street.

The Capitol Avenue Historic District is significant for Community Planning and Development and Architecture. The pattern of development in Jefferson City was largely a movement from west to east, a pattern that continues to this day. Within the Capitol Avenue Historic District, buildings constructed prior to the Civil War were almost all replaced in subsequent decades, as redevelopment began along Capitol Avenue and spread throughout the neighborhood. The development of the Capitol Avenue Historic District is described below in more detail, divided into five distinct development eras.

It should be noted that two streets in the Capitol Avenue Historic District have been renamed over time. State Street was formerly called East Water Street, and Capitol Avenue was known as East Main Street prior to completion of the current Missouri State Capitol in 1924. Throughout this text, they have been referred to as State Street and Capitol Avenue, for purposes of clarity and consistency.

Community Planning and Development

Jefferson City Settlement to 1869

Jefferson City is the county seat of Cole County and the capitol of the state of Missouri. The territory of Missouri became a state in 1821, and Cole County was partitioned off from Cooper County later that year. In 1821 the current location of Jefferson City, then an undeveloped site known as Howard's Bluff, was chosen as the location for the state capitol. In 1825 Jefferson City was incorporated and in 1829 became the seat of Cole County government.[3] Daniel M. Boone, son of the famous frontiersman, and Major Elias Bancroft were commissioned to plan the layout of the town. Incorporated into the layout of the town were 80 to 120 foot wide streets and 400 feet square regularly-spaced city parks.[4] The sale of lots began in May 1823 at an average price of $32.75,[5] when only two families resided in the city.[6] When the sale of 40 town lots and 20 "out" lots was authorized, "sites selected for seminary and penitentiary" were reserved.[7]

Early settlers in Jefferson City came from Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. 12[8] The first families to live in the Capitol Avenue Historic District were from these areas. One such property owner was Gustavus Adolphus Parsons, a native of Charlottesville, Virginia, who bought the circa 1830 house at 105 Jackson Street in 1847. Legend holds that Parsons was encouraged to come to Jefferson City by his employer, former President Thomas Jefferson, who was unable at that point in his life to visit the city named for him. Census data and other research indicates that this may well have been a true story.[9] While the house at 105 Jackson Street pre-dates the period of significance, it is still considered a contributing resource of the district.

In 1840, census data indicates the population of the city was 1,436 people, 262 of which were slaves. After 1840 many Germans fled Prussia during revolutions there.[10] Significant numbers of Germans settled in Missouri, as the Midwest states were especially popular destinations for the immigrants. By 1890, census figures show that nearly 125,000 Missourians were German-born, with about twice that number speaking German.[11] While brick had been produced in Jefferson City since before 1826, German immigrants had a familiarity with and preference for brick construction. The influx of German settlers caused Jefferson City to be known as "the town of brick," as over half of the city's population in 1877 were German immigrants or their descendants.[12] This influence, combined with the city's desire to eliminate fire hazards, instigated the passage of an ordinance prohibiting the building of frame structures.[13]

The Missouri State Capitol, now such a prominent part of the view from Capitol Avenue, was first constructed in Jefferson City in 1826 on the site of the current Governor's Mansion. This structure was destroyed by fire in 1837, and the second capitol was completed on the site of the present-day capitol in 1842.

The other important institution in early Jefferson City is located on the northern boundary of the district — the Missouri State Penitentiary (MSP). The penitentiary played an important role in the development of Jefferson City, and particularly in development of the Capitol Avenue Historic District, as both a source of employment and of prison labor. Construction of the penitentiary was authorized by the Missouri General Assembly in a bill passed on January 11, 1833. The first state or federal penitentiary west of the Mississippi River, MSP began as a quarter-acre area enclosed by a wooden stockade. Architect John Haviland designed the institution, following his design of the castle-like structure in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania known as the Eastern State Penitentiary. The first prisoner was admitted on March 8, 1836.[14]

Throughout the early history of MSP, several attempts were made to lessen the financial burden of caring for prisoners and make the penitentiary self-sufficient. Beginning in 1839, lessees William S. Burch and John C. Gordon paid $30,000 to the state for use of the prison's facilities and prisoners' labor. The number of prisoners increased from 44 in 1839 to 77 in 1840.[15] Repeated escapes resulted in Ezra Richmond and James Brown being granted a lease of MSP in 1843 with the population at 180 prisoners living in 80 cells. To alleviate overcrowding, a new cell building, dining hall and hospital were constructed, and the capacity was increased to 300 prisoners. Public pressure due to the continued problem of escaped prisoners, combined with allegations of abuse, mismanagement and lack of profit resulted in an end to the lease system in 1853 and reestablishment of a warden at MSP. In place of the lease system, the warden became overseer of a contract prison labor system. Between 100-300 prisoners were employed under this system in 1862. Authorization was given in 1870 for 25 inmates to help with construction of Lincoln University. The number of available workers continued to increase, as the population at MSP was 734 in 1870.

The Civil War brought development in Jefferson City to a halt. When the war began, Governor Claiborn Fox Jackson and other state officials who were Confederate supporters fled the state, taking the state seal with them. A provisional Governor was elected, who fulfilled the office of governor until the war ended.[16] Union troops entered the city and built fortifications in strategic areas, including Minor's Hill (now within the boundaries of MSP).[17]

The Young family, early and influential residents of Capitol Avenue, included Judge William C. Young and Dr. Robert Emmet Young. W.C Young was a man of many interests, serving as a contractor on the original capitol, the Gen. Thomas L Price Mansion on West High Street, and at least three houses on the 500 block of Capitol Avenue in the 1870s. Judge of the Cole County Court for three terms, W.C. Young also served as treasurer of Lincoln Institute. Dr. R.E. Young was his son, and served as physician to Governor Marmaduke, who appointed him superintendent of the Nevada State Insane Asylum. As a young man, R.E. Young, born in 1840, attended the State University in Columbia until his junior year, when the Civil War began. R.E. Young joined the battalion of Gen. M.M. Parsons as an orderly in the Confederate Army. Gen. M.M. Parsons was the son of Gustavus Adolphus Parsons, who lived at 105 Jackson Street in the Capitol Avenue Historic District.

In the Birds Eye View of 1869, we can see that a number of houses dotted the landscape within the district, with development extending no further than Chestnut Street on the east and McCarty Street on the south. The majority of the houses at this time are depicted as one to two stories, with side gable roofs. The oldest house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is the circa 1830 Parsons House at 105 Jackson Street, with a lower story of stone and the upper story of log covered by clapboard. This house does appear in the Bird's Eye View of Jefferson City, 1869, as a 2-story house in the middle of the east side of the 100 block, but without the 2-story porch. Such details were typically omitted in this type of drawing. Capitol Avenue is depicted as rather sparsely developed, with mostly 1 to 2-story Missouri-German vernacular type houses that were typical of that era. No houses are shown for 1/2 block on the south side of Capitol Avenue on either side of Marshall Street, and Capitol Avenue appears to end at Cherry Street. The house at 429 Capitol Avenue is depicted as a 1-story house, while the current house at this location is a 2-story Italianate house built circa 1868. The grid pattern of the streets remains the same as in 1869, but virtually all of the buildings from this era have been replaced.

One notable fact about the Capitol Avenue Historic District is that very few of the extant houses have a strong Missouri-German architectural influence, even though many of the houses depicted in 1869 appear to be Missouri-German type houses. One reason for this may be that Missouri-Germans, being Union supporters, were not interested in living in the same neighborhood as supporters of the Confederacy following the Civil War. The Parsons and the Youngs were two prominent families of the neighborhood who both had strong southern sympathies. The Parson family lived in the district before and alter the war, while the Youngs constructed residences in the district after the war both for family and for speculative purposes.

The only house remaining in the Capitol Avenue Historic District from this period of development is the Parsons House at 105 Jackson Street, which was constructed in 1830.

Redevelopment 1870 to 1895

Following the Civil War, Jefferson City consisted of residences widely scattered across the undulating landscape, connected by streets with coarse, unpaved surfaces and dimly lit coal oil lamps perched on top of poles.[18] Frank Miller, a Jefferson City architect, recalled that the population limits in the late 1860s and early 1870s were the Missouri River on the north, Dunklin Street to the south, and the Catholic cemetery to the west, while the eastern boundary was undefined.[19] No paved streets existed in Jefferson City until the 1880s, and up until that time, sidewalks were constructed of boards, bricks and flagstones.[20]

The period between 1880 and 1900 was a period of infrastructure development that facilitated redevelopment of the entire community, as well as the Capitol Avenue Historic District. In 1887, an electric light plant was under construction, and in the same year the Wagner-Fisher Electric Company and the Jefferson City Gas Company merged.[21] Construction of a water plant was underway in 1889, when a visitor to Jefferson City remarked that the city consisted of two good streets and one good wagon road. One of these streets ended at the penitentiary (and must have been either the current Capitol Avenue or State Street) and the other terminated at the cemetery.[22] In 1892, an ordinance to have the gas street lights replaced by electric lights was ratified, the same year state buildings received electric lights.[23] A bridge across the Missouri River was constructed in 1895 and opened on February 17, 1896.[24] In 1896, an editorial in the Stale Republican newspaper claimed that Jefferson City had "twenty bridges crossing small streams, and about forty miles of macadamized roads and streets ... a brewery and ice plant... [and was] lighted by forty arc lights that burn all night."[25]

One of the major contributing factors to redevelopment of the Capitol Avenue Historic District during this period was the decision to restructure manufacturing systems at MSP. The State of Missouri had since 1839 been concerned with the cost of maintaining the penitentiary. From 1839 to 1853 numerous attempts were made to lease the prison and absolve the state from all costs of operation. The lessee would, in exchange for use of the prison grounds, buildings and prisoners, be responsible for all prison operations, including food, clothing and shelter for the inmates. In the early years, the lessees frequently worked prisoners outside the prison walls, advertising that prison labor was available for construction projects, landscaping and groundskeeping, blacksmithing and house and sign painting. Lax supervision led to frequent escapes. Townspeople were distressed not only by the number of prisoners working among them and fleeing through town, but that inmates working for such low wages were taking jobs away from local workers. Gross abuses of prison labor and supplies after 1853, while under state management, prompted a return to the lease system from 1873 to 1875.

By the late 1870s, the state was prepared to try a different approach to making the penitentiary self-supporting. Governor John S. Phelps' 1879 address to the general assembly recounted the failure of the lease system, and remarked on attempts to operate the prison as a manufacturing facility run by the prison warden. His recommendation was to take the middle ground — the prison would not be leased, but neither would prison officers serve as business managers for manufacturing. Instead, the Governor favored expansion of private industry within the prison. Under this arrangement, the state constructed factory buildings, then negotiated with manufacturers for multi-year contracts specifying terms for the use of prison labor. This approach was already being used successfully, as shoe manufacturer George Corning testified in 1873. His operation employed 70 inmates at a cost of $0.40 each per day, from which he generated an annual profit of $5,000. Such a substantial profit convinced him to relocate from St. Louis to Jefferson City.[26]

In this period of development, the district experienced strong growth in terms of new construction. A total of 44 buildings (not counting outbuildings) were built from 1870 to 1895. The Italianate style was the most common style constructed during this period, with 14 houses. Nine of these were built in the Side Hall Plan. The second most popular style during this period was the Queen Anne style, exhibited by 12 houses. Six vernacular buildings were built during this period, including four with details typical of the Missouri-German vernacular tradition. One commercial and one Second Empire style house were built during this period, as well as one Gabled Ell house constructed in 1870.

The development pattern within the Capitol Avenue Historic District during this period does not appear to have been planned as large-scale redevelopment by any one person or group of persons, but appears to have evolved over time as older houses were replaced by newer homes. The largest group of similar houses in this gradual evolution is found on the south side of the 500 block of Capitol Avenue, where eight of nine houses were constructed during the 1870s, mostly between 1870 and 1873. A survey conducted during this period verifies that small-scale redevelopment was occurring. The survey for Miss Walther by E.F.C. Harding, City Engineer, in 1895, shows the subdivision of four inlots on Capitol Avenue between Jackson and Marshall Streets.[27] Some of these narrow 25 foot wide lots were later combined, as this half block now contains five buildings and one vacant lot, with the two western buildings appearing wider than those to the east.

Redevelopment — 1896 to 1915

The 1897-1898 City Directory reported that Jefferson City was served by three railroad lines at that time: the Missouri Pacific; the Chicago and Alton and Missouri; and the Kansas and Texas. The directory also lists some of the contributions to the built environment, either completed or in progress over the course of those two years, including a $200,000 bridge across the Missouri River, a $60,000 Courthouse, a flour mill, four new churches at a total cost of $25,000, a new $30,000 sewer system, a $50,000 hotel, an opera house, a four-story bank building, a $20,000 improvement to the street and sidewalk infrastructure in addition to several new businesses and residences.[28] The Capitol Telephone Company was organized in the early 20th century, with early Capitol Avenue Historic District resident Lester S. Parker as minority stockholder, along with two other residents of the district, G. A. Fischer and Ed R. Hogg.[29]

The contract labor system established in the late 1870s allowed private enterprise to utilize low-cost prison labor in factories located inside the walls of the penitentiary, reducing the opportunity for prisoner escapes, and maximizing the manufacturers' profits. As a result, a number of manufacturers began operations within the walls of the penitentiary, as shown on the Sanborn Map of 1898: Jacob Strauss Saddlery Co., J.S. Sullivan Saddletree Factory and Lumber Yards, Hoskins-Ross Manufacturing (broom factory), Giesecke Boot & Shoe Manufacturing Co., A. Priesmeyer Shoe Company, Vaughn Monning Shoe Cutters, and L.S. Parker Shoe Co. By 1900, the U.S. Parker Shoe Co. employed 230 people, and had unfilled orders for 65,000 pairs of shoes.[30] By 1902, the prison population had increased to 2,052 prisoners within the 15-acre penitentiary.[31] In 1903, the prison complex consisted of five shoe factories with a combined output of 10,000 pairs of shoes daily, one of the largest saddletree factories in the world, and a workingmen's clothes factory, while a binding twine plant, with an annual output of three million pounds of high-grade binder twine, was added in 1905.[32] In 1904, four shoe manufacturers remained in operation at the prison: Bruns Manufacturing Company, Giesecke-D'Oench-Hays Shoe Company, L.S. Parker Shoe Company and A. Priesmeyer Shoe Company.[33] Between 1903 and 1904, the well-known Jefferson City architectural firm of Miller and Opel was contracted to design a state female prison and a state twine factory, costing $100,000 and $50,000 respectively, within the confines of MSP.[34] (The female prison structure remains, and is clearly visible from State Street.) By 1905, the Missouri State Penitentiary had become the largest single institution of its kind in the United States, enclosing fifteen acres within its walls.[35]

In 1915 the practice of contracting for use of prison labor was discontinued, but most likely not due to lack of demand for the service, due to the reasonable labor rates provided by the prison. From 1913 to the end of 1915, the prison warden had authorization to contract for the labor of all able bodied male prisoners at a rate of not less than $0.75 per day per prisoner.[36]

Manufacturing also occurred outside the penitentiary walls. The MSP Broom Factory was constructed at 530 State Street circa 1900, and later served as a warehouse for the Missouri State Guard. This building is now home to Shryack-Hirst Grocery Company, and is used as a warehouse and distribution center. The building at 100 Lafayette Street (now vacant) was home to a division of the J.S. Sullivan Saddle Factory, and later served as the Clover Leaf Overall Manufacturing Company. The International Shoe Company, located at 1015 Capitol Avenue, was adjacent to the Park Place Addition, where a number of the company's workers resided.[37] This factory building is located east of the district.

In order to be close to their businesses, a number of executives with manufacturing enterprises within the penitentiary walls built their homes on the east side of Jefferson City. For example, James Houchin, president of the Clover Leaf Overall Manufacturing Company at 100 Lafayette Street and the Star Clothing Company inside MSP, lived at 611 Capitol Avenue. Lester Shepard Parker, president of the L.S. Parker Shoe Company, lived diagonally across from the penitentiary walls at 624 Capitol Avenue.[38] William F. Houchin, superintendent of the Cloverleaf Overall Manufacturing Co., lived at 201 Cherry Street.[39] F. N. Chandler, vice-president and superintendent of the L.S. Parker Shoe Company, lived at 512 Capitol Avenue.[40] The foreman of the Star Clothing Company, Louis F. Spauhorst, lived at 517 Capitol Avenue in 1913.[41] John Tweedie, Sr. was a native of Scotland and one of the organizers of the A. Priesmeyer Shoe Company, and resided at 601 East High Street (outside of the Capitol Avenue Historic District, but within walking distance to the penitentiary).

Other prominent members of the community besides executives of the manufacturing companies resided in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The Dallmeyer family has been a consistent presence in the district from 1869 to the present. Col. William Q. Dallmeyer was born in Dissen, Hanover, Germany in 1829, came to America in 1845, and established a general store in Gasconade County in 1856. During the Civil War he served with a unit known as Dallmeyer's Battalion, of which he was a lieutenant colonel. Dallmeyer was elected to the legislature in 1864 and 1866, then as State Treasurer in 1868, when he moved permanently to Jefferson City and acquired property at 600 Capitol Avenue. From 1874 to 1882 he served as cashier of First National Bank, then became cashier of Exchange Bank, of which he was later president. W.Q. Dallmeyer died in 1908.

His son, William A. Dallmeyer, one of five children, was born in Gasconade County in 1865. Educated in Jefferson City and at Kemper Military Academy in Boonville, he worked for Exchange Bank following graduation. By 1938 William A. Dallmeyer had worked for Exchange Bank for 56 years, serving as president for a considerable number of those years. In addition to working at the Bank, W. A. Dallmeyer was active on local, state and national boards, including ten years as city treasurer, member of the State Board of Agriculture, president of the State Fair Board for a number of years, and president of the American Hereford Breeders Association. W. A. Dallmeyer also owned a large insurance business. While W. Q. Dallmeyer purchased the property at 600 Capitol Avenue in 1869, the house currently at this location is a result of W.A. Dallmeyer's efforts, circa 1910. W. A. Dallmeyer's son, Robert E. Dallmeyer, was an officer at Exchange Bank in 1938.[42]

Rudolph Dallmeyer was a brother of W. Q. Dallmeyer. In 1874 he moved to Jefferson City and became manager of Dallmeyer and Company, owned by W. Q. Dallmeyer, then founded his own dry goods store in 1881. Rudolph Dallmeyer married Louise Schmidt in 1878 and had five children: Frank William, Pauline Anne Russell, Mathilde Katherine, Charles Hermann (who died in infancy) and Alvin Rudolph. Rudolph Dallmeyer and his family lived at 615 Capitol Avenue. Son Frank Dallmeyer built Moreau Park, currently located on Old Route B just east of the Moreau River, and lived there with wife Fern Johnston Dallmeyer and children Rudolph Johnston and Louise Pauline. Rudolph Dallmeyer's father-in-law Frank Schmidt built the house at 526 Capitol Avenue and the Dallmeyer Building on East High Street.

Other Missouri-German families with businesses downtown resided in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. Gustavus A. Fischer, who always went by G.A. Fischer, lived at 500 Capitol Avenue in both 1913 and 1925.[43] G.A. Fischer founded and operated the G.A. Fischer Drug Company on East High Street for many years, which was then run by his son, C.H. Fischer. G.A. Fischer married Jennie Bruns in 1890, granddaughter of Dr. Bernard Bruns, a founder of Westphalia, Missouri, pioneer physician and civic leader in Jefferson City. Other notable families who lived in the district include Daniel H. McIntyre, who lived at 401 Capitol Avenue, served as Attorney General of Missouri, and was an attorney and president of the Merchants Bank. James R. McConachie was the long-time manager of Weatherby Shoe & Furnishing Goods at 122 E. High Street, and lived at 405 Capitol Avenue. William K. Bradbury, Assistant Warden at MSP, lived at 524 Capitol Avenue in 1877. The house at 606 Capitol Avenue was home to Judge Gavon D. Burgess, a justice on the Missouri Supreme Court. This house was purchased in 1918 by Charles Carson, owner of the Central Broom Company.[44]

The capitol building completed in 1842 was destroyed by fire in 1911. Even though Jefferson City had acquired the designation as Missouri's capital in 1821, that decision did not go uncontested, with Sedalia mounting the most serious threat to the retention of Jefferson City's status as the state capital. Destruction of the capitol twice fueled the debate, and did little to quell the uncertainty surrounding Jefferson City's future. The controversy was resolved in 1911 following a state-wide bond issue voted on by the residents of Missouri, which forever established Jefferson City as the state's capital. Following this decision and in the aftermath of the fire of 1911, construction began on the present capitol, which cost $4,500,000 and was dedicated in 1924.[45] In recognition of this great achievement, East Main Street was renamed circa 1924 as Capitol Avenue. (This street is also still known locally as East Capitol Avenue, even though there is no West Capitol Avenue. Throughout this text, the name used is Capitol Avenue.)

A survey by the city engineer in 1906 of Menteer's Subdivision shows one 50-foot lot at the corner of Water Street (now State Street) and Lafayette Street, plus five residential 30-foot wide lots.[46] The layout of this block remains unchanged from when surveyed 99 years ago.

Data from the Sanborn Maps reinforces the west to east development pattern of the neighborhood. In 1892, the only portion of the Capitol Avenue Historic District depicted is the 400 blocks of East Water Street (now State Street), East Main Street (now Capitol Avenue), and East High Street, as well as portions of Adams and Jackson Streets. Apparently the insurance company did not believe there was sufficient development to the east to warrant mapping. But from this map, it is clear that redevelopment had begun, and six houses on the 400 block of Capitol Avenue remain extant, as well as two on Jackson Street, one on State Street, and one house on East High Street. By 1939, the 400 block of Capitol Avenue had increased in density, as two houses were added.

By 1908, the Sanborn Fire Insurance Company included a significantly larger portion of the neighborhood on their maps, including houses from Adams Street to east of Cherry Street along the current State Street and Capitol Avenue, as well as the north-south streets extending south of East High Street. Some patterns of development are evident on this map. For instance, following the survey of the 100 block of Lafayette Street, only three residences had been constructed in 1908. Except for Jackson Street, there is little development of the north-south streets between the current State Street, Capitol Avenue and East High Street. Development of State Street appears complete by 1908, as does the 500 block of Capitol Avenue. The 600 block of Capitol Avenue has a different appearance than today, particularly on the north side. The house at 615 Capitol Avenue is the only building to survive from this period. Buildings west of this house were later replaced by the Bella Vista Apartments and the Houchin House, while a row of attached townhouses to the east no longer remain. On the south side of the 600 block, there was a large house at 618 Capitol Avenue where two early 20th century houses now stand. The 400 and 700 blocks of East High Street were developed by 1908 and remain largely the same today. Cherry Street was just beginning to develop in 1908, with only three houses on the 200 block, two of which remain today.

The period between 1896 and 1915 exhibited several new architectural styles, with 49 buildings constructed as the district continued to develop. The Foursquare house became popular and dominated new development during these years, with 14 constructed in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, the greatest number of any style constructed between 1896 and 1915. There were four Colonial Revival style houses and houses influenced by this style. Neo-Classical architecture, while a dramatic and highly visible style of architecture, is only represented by two houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, both constructed between 1896 and 1915. The Lester S. and Missouri "Zue" Gordon Parker House and the W. Q. Dallmeyer House were both constructed in the Neo-Classical style. The Side Hall Plan house with Italianate detailing fell from favor, with only one house constructed in this manner. Queen Anne houses continued to be constructed, but in smaller numbers than in the previous period, with only five houses built in this style during 1896 to 1915. Only one building with a Missouri-German vernacular influence was constructed during this period. The only Gothic building constructed was the Grace Episcopal Church, designed with Gothic Revival and Romanesque Revival architectural styles. One Classical Revival building, the Dix Apartments at 623 Capitol Avenue, was constructed in 1915. This 4-unit apartment building continued the tradition of smaller apartment buildings, with no more than four units each. The Craftsman style began to develop in the district during this period, with the house at 618 Capitol Avenue constructed as an excellent example of Craftsman influenced architecture. Two Georgian Revival influenced buildings from this period remain at 504 State Street and 101 Jackson Street. Seventeen vernacular buildings were constructed during this period.

Redevelopment — 1916 to 1925

On the 1923 Sanborn Map, the 500 and 700 residential blocks of Capitol Avenue appear much the same as in 1908. After 1923, changes are apparent on the 600 block of Capitol Avenue. On the south side, the large house at 618 has been replaced by one small house to the east side of the lot. The north side is much different, with the Houchin House having replaced three houses, with two now vacant lots to the west. The houses at 615 and 617 remain as before, but all the row houses east of 617 are gone, with the Dix Apartments now located at 635, 637, 639 and 641 Capitol Avenue. A 2-story house has been constructed just west of the apartments at 633 Capitol Avenue. On Cherry Street, the house now at 206 Cherry has been added, as has the house at 214. The east side of Cherry Street appears almost complete, with the addition of six houses and the removal of a large house facing East High Street.

Between 1916 and 1925, ten buildings were constructed in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The reduced number of houses built during this time was a result of both the neighborhood approaching completion, with few undeveloped lots remaining, and new developments elsewhere in the city drawing attention away from the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The Foursquare house type remained the most popular, with three houses built in this style from 1916 to 1925. The Italian Renaissance style appeared during this period, represented by a duplex at 728-730 Capitol Avenue and an adjacent house around the corner at 204 Cherry Street. Two vernacular buildings were added to the neighborhood, as well as the first Bungalow style house. The house at 616 Capitol Avenue is an excellent example of the Bungalow style, which is rare in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, as the neighborhood was nearly complete before the Bungalow style became popular. One final architectural style exhibited during this period of development is the English Revival style. The house at 217 Cherry Street was constructed in this style in 1925.

Redevelopment 1926 to Present

The first zoning ordinance was adopted by the city on September 12, 1932. At that time, the International Shoe Company factory, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, areas adjacent to and northeast of the central business district and along East High Street from Adams to Lafayette Street were zoned as light industrial. An area from Lafayette Street along East High Street to its intersection with Ash Street, and from East High Street along Lafayette Street to its intersection with East McCarty Street was zoned as commercial. Most of the remainder of the neighborhood was zoned for multi-family dwellings. These historic land use designations are still in evidence today in the built environment of Jefferson City's east side and in the Capitol Avenue Historic District.[47]

The 1939 Sanborn Maps illustrate further residential development within the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The house at 114 Jackson Street appeared, configured as it is today. Two houses were added to the north side of the 400 block of Capitol Avenue, as lots were further subdivided. The Prince Edward Apartments appeared on the 200 block of Marshall Street, as well as the last house in the south side of the 600 block, at 616 Capitol Avenue. The 200 block of Cherry Street is shown as it is today, with the addition of 204 and 217 Cherry Street. The 100 block of Lafayette Street is shown as complete.

From 1939 to the present, there have been changes to very few of the blocks within the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The majority of the changes have occurred on State Street, where six houses have been removed and vacant lots remain, and on the 400 block of Capitol Avenue, which adjoins the 200 block of Adams Street. As late as 1971 all of the buildings shown on the 1939 map of the south side of the 400 block of Capitol Avenue remained intact.[48] Since that time, five houses on the south side of the 400 block of Capitol Avenue have been removed. A large house on the corner of Adams and Capitol Avenue was replaced by the commercial building at 209 Adams Street and its surface parking lot. The house at the corner of Jackson and Capitol Avenue was replaced by the Missouri Center for Free Enterprise circa 1978. Vacant lots remain on either side of 414-416 Capitol Avenue. The Jefferson City Chamber of Commerce Building (known at the time of construction as the Missouri Baptist Building) replaced a house in the 200 block of Adams Street in 1947. Additions to the Grace Episcopal Church replaced two houses on the 200 block of Adams Street and one house and a duplex on the 400 block of East High Street. On the 600 block of Capitol Avenue, two single family houses were removed and replaced by two 1-story commercial office buildings, adjacent to the Dix Apartments. These changes illustrate the trend toward replacement of residential structures with commercial buildings, since zoning changes since 1932 encouraged more commercial use of the neighborhood.

The largely residential district was supported by the downtown to the west and a smaller neighborhood commercial node one block south, at the intersection of East High and Lafayette Streets. By 1940, the commercial node in the 600 and 700 blocks of East High Street stretched between two intersections and included nine stores, two restaurants, one awning factory, one upholstering business and East End Drug. A.J. Hardin's grocery at 700 East High Street opened in 1933, while Kroger Grocery operated at 631 East High Street from at least 1929 until 1938.[49]

The Capitol Avenue Historic District is largely residential in character, and the density of housing in the Capitol Avenue area has both increased and decreased over time. An increase in density occurred as single family homes were converted to two or more rental units. While several buildings were initially constructed as duplexes or apartments, and some conversions began as early as the 1930s[50], most of the conversions were a result of home owners leaving the central city beginning in the 1950s. Fourteen duplexes appear to have been originally constructed in the district; conversions have increased this number to a current total of 26. Fewer large scale conversions have occurred, as only one single family house was divided into four units, and three buildings increased by more than four units. Two apartment buildings were originally constructed in the district during this period. The Bella Vista Apartments were constructed on Capitol Avenue in 1928, and contained 24 apartments. The Prince Edward Apartments were constructed on Marshall Street circa 1930, with at least 6 apartments. Both buildings have more apartments than the two to four units typical in previous periods, illustrating a demand for increased density in the neighborhood during the early part of this phase of development. The decrease in the density of housing within the district during the same period is a result of two recent trends: conversion to commercial use and vacancy. Recent conversions of single family homes to office use has increased the number of buildings in commercial use from two original manufacturing buildings to 21 commercial buildings. A number of the homes that have been converted to multi-family use are now partially or completely vacant, as the cost to upgrade their mechanical systems and make repairs has in some cases exceeded the rent they generated.

During the final phase of development in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, nine buildings were constructed: five buildings built between 1926 and 1945, and four buildings built after the end of the period of significance. Several buildings with distinctive architectural styles were constructed between 1926 and 1947. One of the outstanding apartment buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is the Bella Vista Apartments at 601 Capitol Avenue, built in 1928. Containing 24 apartments, the builders both recognized and encouraged the increasing population density of the Capitol Avenue Historic District, with its close proximity to both the Missouri State Capitol and the Missouri State Penitentiary. The Spanish Revival style of the apartment building exhibits the use of decorative tile that was popular at about the same time in the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Missouri. Another rare style of architecture constructed during this phase of development is Art Deco, exhibited on the Prince Edward Apartments at 208 Marshall Street. These apartments, built in 1930, retain their excellent Art Deco style details at the entrance and at the roofline. An example of the English Revival style of architecture was constructed at 113 Adams Street in 1935. In 1939, the former A&P Grocery Store was constructed at 209 Adams Street in the Art Deco style. The substantial looking office building built in 1947 at 213 Adams Street was constructed in the Classical Revival style. A buff brick commercial building close to both of these buildings was built at the rear of 410 Capitol Avenue in 1942. All three of these buildings demonstrated the trend of commercial development spreading from the core central business district to surrounding areas The Sanborn Map of 1939 depicted a large 2-story house on the corner of Adams Street and Capitol Avenue, which was replaced by a surface parking lot associated with 209 Adams Street.

Jefferson City was home to a number of sizeable factories, and during the Depression one shirt factory and one shoe factory closed. Fortunately, such job losses were offset by the increase in state employees during the same period. Still, the sudden job losses had been a problem for Jefferson City, and the Chamber of Commerce developed a plan to attract jobs and guard against any future economic downturns by forming the Industrial Development Corporation in 1946. A lack of sites suitable for industrial development resulted in plans for acquisition of land for five to six new industries. The first constructed was the National Guard building on Industrial Boulevard,[51] followed by Jefferson City Manufacturing and DeLong Steel. This expansion of Jefferson City away from the urban core toward the west was the beginning of the city's "urban sprawl." As jobs relocated from factories located in the district or at MSP to Industrial Boulevard, workers followed. Neighborhoods of modest brick Ranch houses began to appear near the new employers. The relocation of Highway 50/63 from McCarty Street to the Rex Whitton Expressway made travel to new jobs and houses easier than ever before.[52] A shift from single family residential use to multi-family use in the Capitol Avenue Historic District began during this period, as houses began to be subdivided into apartments and apartment buildings were constructed in the district.

In spite of the community's westward expansion, the spread of commercial offices into the residential core of the Capitol Avenue Historic District continued into the 1960s and 1970s. The office buildings at 619 and 621 Capitol Avenue were constructed during the late 1960s, and 428 Capitol Avenue was built in the late 1970s. Several factors encouraged this spread of office locations, including the increased availability of automobiles and the related demand for off-street parking, which was not always available in the core downtown commercial district. All three of these later buildings have surface parking lots to the rear with some parking to the side of the buildings.

Another factor that explains changes to the neighborhood during the 1960s through the 1990s is explained in the 1996 "Comprehensive Plan Update" for the City of Jefferson. This document describes development trends that have impacted the neighborhood surrounding the Capitol Avenue Historic District for several decades. "The land use plans prepared in 1969, 1978, and 1986 have perpetuated the idea of converting much of this neighborhood to more intensive land uses. The current zoning code permits more intensive use of many properties than what currently exists. The 1969 Comprehensive Plan proposed an extension of the downtown commercial area along High Street to Lafayette Street. Also, commercial nodes are proposed for groups of lots farther east. The 1978 Land Use Plan proposed a similar arrangement of land uses for this neighborhood. The 1986 Land Use Plan was the most aggressive in terms of the amount of commercial development proposed for this area. Also, the 1986 plan was specific in designating much of the area for medium to high density residential (7 to 29 dwelling units per acre)... This planning technique is ...easy to implement, if a community is dealing with undeveloped territory. However, it can have unintended consequences if applied to existing developed areas. Often what happens is that reuse or redevelopment to higher intensity uses occurs on a piecemeal basis, creating land use conflicts between the new land uses and adjacent uses."[53]


Several of the architects and builders responsible for the houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are known, but the designers and builders of the majority of the houses remain unknown. Well-known architect Charles Opel designed Ivy Terrace, the home of Governor Lawrence V. Stephens at 500 Capitol Avenue, and 601 East High Street, home of shoe manufacturer John Tweedie, Sr., as well as part of the penitentiary complex. Opel was apparently proud of Ivy Terrace, as a photograph of the house was featured in his ad in the 1897-1898 City Directory.[54] Fulton architect Montgomery Fred Bell designed the Warden's House at 700 Capitol Avenue for the State of Missouri. W.C. Young was the builder of at least three houses in the 500 block of Capitol Avenue. Survey data indicates that Young, an early Jefferson City builder, built 512 Capitol Avenue for himself in 1873, 514 Capitol Avenue for his mother in 1872-73, as well as 516 Capitol Avenue in 1872-73.[55] He may have built the remaining Side Hall Plan houses on this block as well, which would explain their similarity of design and why they were built within a period of a few years. Frank Schmidt constructed the house at 526 Capitol Avenue and also built the Madison Hotel and 206-210 East High Street, known as the Dallmeyer Building.[56] Ernst Braun built his house at 212 Lafayette Street in 1903. Many of the buildings constructed during the rapid expansion of the city near the turn of the century were not designed by architects on an individual basis. Instead, contractors and builders constructed houses based on the same plan replicated several times with only minor variations. An advertisement in the 1897-1898 City Directory supports this argument, as it read: "ERNST BRAUN, Architect, Contractor and Builder, Plans and Specifications furnished on application, and all work attended to promptly. Build your house now before property goes up higher. Fine Cabinet Work a Specialty. Call and see me. SHOP: REAR 217 MADISON. Jefferson City, Missouri."[57]

Architectural Styles

The architectural styles and building types of the neighborhood reflect the patterns of development of the neighborhood, the variety of residents and their income levels, and the styles and types typical of the time periods represented in the neighborhood, 1870 to 1945, with one building dating to 1830. A full array of styles and types may be found in the larger neighborhood that was surveyed in 1992. The majority of the buildings in this broader neighborhood (over 55%) can be characterized as vernacular, that is, not being of a historic architectural style. Many vernacular houses may be identified and grouped as house types or building types according to their forms and plan shapes. One quarter of the buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are vernacular buildings. The forms identified in the surveyed neighborhood include folk forms and more common houses built by local tradesmen inspired by the popular media of plan books and catalogues. While organization of space, proportion, and scale provide indices for stylistic analysis, ornament is the most obvious index of style.[58]

Property Type 1: Vernacular

Subtype: Missouri-German Vernacular

There are several types of vernacular buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, including both residential and commercial buildings. One of the oldest vernacular property types is the Missouri-German Vernacular building. Missouri-German buildings are highly individual, but they do share the basic characteristics of careful craftsmanship, simplicity of design, and a tendency toward austere, planar surfaces.[59]

The most visible construction tradition that the German settlers brought to Jefferson City and other Missouri communities was the tradition of building in brick. Brick kilns were often among the first industrial enterprises to be established in Missouri-German towns, including Jefferson City, where a kiln was established before 1826.[60] By 1900, three brick kilns were in operation in Jefferson City.[61]

Early Missouri-German buildings typically featured a symmetrical facade, straight lintels, double doors, and lights over the doors. The severity of the design was often relieved by decorative cornice treatments, most commonly in the form of dentilation, ornamental wooden trimwork, and other ornamentation. Cornices on the earliest Missouri-German Vernacular houses were decorated with a stepped brick design, usually with two bricks stacked soldier style at the top, then two more bricks stepping down to the level of the front facade. Later period buildings exhibiting the Missouri-German Vernacular influence may have a more prominent stepped brick cornice detail using five or more bricks, or a wooden cornice design. Architectural styles popular in later periods were often used to embellish an existing Missouri-German Vernacular house or were incorporated in new construction, typically evident on the front porch or entrance. The 400 and 500 blocks of Capitol Avenue have buildings that exhibit this trend.

Missouri-German brick buildings erected after the Civil War tend to have arched door and window openings, ranging from shallow segmental arches to nearly semicircular arches. It has even been suggested that the arches over the windows of those later buildings tended to become higher as the century progressed.[62] Whether the arch is flat or more rounded, this architectural feature is one of the more enduring Missouri-German building traditions in Jefferson City. Even on Craftsman style homes from the 1920s, it is not uncommon for a house to have red brick walls and windows with segmental arches.

While a number of the early houses on Capitol Avenue and State Street have the general shape, roof type, segmental arched windows, simplicity of design, and austere, planar surfaces typical of the Missouri-German Vernacular type, there are several worth noting for their ornamentation. The house at 407 Capitol Avenue, built circa 1880 in the Italianate style, features side walls with a corbelled brick cornice. The cornice has been painted white to highlight this feature. At 610 State Street, circa 1875, the corbelled cornice continues on all sides of the house. The house at 419 East High Street, although influenced by the Queen Anne style, has corbelled brick drops at the cornice of the east and west elevations. A commercial example of the Missouri-German Vernacular type is located at 100 Lafayette, built circa 1900, which exhibits numerous segmental arched windows, austere planar wall surfaces, and a corbelled brick cornice. Another example at 423 East High Street appears somewhat more typical of the Missouri-German Vernacular type, with its side gable roof. This example has a wood cornice and segmental arched windows, and may have suffered alterations to the fenestration pattern of the front facade.

The Missouri-German Vernacular buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are the earliest remaining physical links to the area's development. The form, scale, materials, and detailing of these buildings represent the architecture typical of this period of early development. Prior to the Civil War, the Bird's Eye View illustrates the prevalence of Missouri-German Vernacular houses in the area of the Capitol Avenue Historic District. Subsequent redevelopment has replaced all but a small number of these resources. The remaining Missouri-German Vernacular buildings serve to illustrate the evolution of this part of Jefferson City from a sprawling, semi-rural setting to a dense urban streetscape.

Subtype: American Foursquare

Another vernacular property type, and the most abundant house type in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is the Foursquare. This house type was very popular from circa 1890-1930, and is common throughout the Midwest. One of the reasons for its popularity at this time was the availability and abundance of mass produced stock materials and the adoption of utilitarian design.[63] From the early 1890s through the early teens there was a nationwide trend toward simpler houses, developed out of the perception that the excesses of late Victorian architecture needed to be reformed. The Foursquare was promoted as an alternative to the extravagance of late Victorian design. The popularity of the four square house type can be attributed to several factors. First, they were economical, as the simple shape allowed the greatest amount of space for the least cost. Second, the 2-story form set on a high basement gives Foursquare houses a sense of solidity and massiveness without the complex roof-lines and projections typical of previous styles, such as the Queen Anne style. Finally, the Foursquare was commonly promoted by mail order companies, magazines, and other companies selling plans as uniquely American and perfectly suited to the American family.[64]

The basic Foursquare floor plan has two stories, each with four rooms of equal size. The Foursquare house is the perfect example of high-style architectural styles and forms that were slowly adopted by the general public, and in the process evolved into simpler vernacular forms. The basic form continued through the 19th century by changing its stylistic shell to conform to the popular style of the day. The basic Foursquare plan can be seen under the low-pitched roof and eave brackets of the Italianate cube, and behind the bay windows, corner turrets, and lumberyard trim of many Queen Anne houses.[65]

The Foursquare, with seventeen examples in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, includes several houses that have the Foursquare form mixed with a particular architectural style. The Foursquare provided a sturdy form that could be ornamented according to popular architectural styles, to meet the desire of upper middle class families to display their new wealth, often derived from businesses at MSP or in the downtown business district. The economical Foursquare provided home owners with the greatest amount of space for the least money, making it popular with middle class families, particularly those who worked at industries in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The earliest Foursquare type house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is 722 Capitol Avenue, the Deputy Warden's House, constructed in 1900, next to another Foursquare house at 718 Capitol Avenue, built in 1915. The most visible example of this form is a series of houses on the east side of Cherry Street, where four out of six houses exhibit this house type, built in 1910 and 1915.

Subtype: Side Hall Plan House Type

The third major vernacular property type found in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is the Side Hall Plan house type. The frequency of the Side Hall Plan house type suggests the presence of middle class residents in the Capitol Avenue Historic District.[66] This form was well suited to narrow city lots which emerged in parts of Jefferson City and continued to be built in urban settings as row houses until the end of the Victorian era despite its decrease in frequency in rural areas after the mid-19th century.[67] This 2, or 2-1/2-story house form with a gable roof is two rooms deep, but is only of sufficient width for one room and a side hallway containing a staircase.[68] Prior to the Civil War, these buildings exhibited Greek Revival stylistic features, while after the Civil War, affluent middle class dwellings of this form often carried Italianate ornamentation.[69] The Side Hall Plan House Type is typically used in the Capitol Avenue Historic District in conjunction with the Italianate architectural style, but examples without Italianate details also remain. Seven examples of the Side Hall Plan form with Italianate style or influence are located in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. They are 407, 417, 504-506, 522, 606 and 712 Capitol Avenue and 726 East High Street. Other examples of this house type remain in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, such as 610 State Street.

Property Type 2: Victorian Styles

The Victorian styles were popular from 1860 to 1900, and in the Capitol Avenue Historic District they encompass a wide range of property types and sizes, from the elaborately detailed J. Henry and Hilda Asel House at 210 Lafayette Street to the simple Vernacular Folk Victorian houses found on the 100 block of Lafayette Street and elsewhere. Both the wealthy businessman and the middle-class household were drawn to the decorative nature of the styles. These houses were usually placed behind a small front yard, filling most of the width of the lot, providing their street with an urban appearance when several were constructed on the same block. Usually built without the services of an architect, except in high-style versions such as Ivy Terrace, these buildings are good representations of the styles prevalent during the Victorian era. In the Capitol Avenue Historic District, the Victorian style is exhibited in the Italianate style, in favor nationwide from about 1840 until 1875; the Queen Anne style, popular nationally from 1880 to 1910; and the Vernacular Folk Victorian style, built from around 1870 to 1910. These styles encompass a variety of subtypes, yet all can be described as "picturesque," having irregular shapes, with attention to detailed ornamentation.[70] The Victorian style most commonly used in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is Folk Victorian Vernacular (18 houses), with Queen Anne a close second (17 houses), with almost as many examples of the Italianate style in the-area (16 houses). One house, 717 East High Street, exhibits both Queen Anne and Italianate styles.

Technological advances such as balloon-frame construction, using lightweight boards held together by wire nails, rapidly replaced heavy timber framing. This allowed the use of irregular shapes, freeing houses from their traditional box-shapes. Industrialization facilitated the mass production of many building components, such as doors, windows, siding, and decorative details, that could be shipped anywhere in the country cost effectively via railroad.[71] Total railroad mileage in Missouri at the end of the Civil War was 800 miles, and by 1870 it had more than doubled to 2,000 miles reaching throughout the state.[72] In the Capitol Avenue Historic District, the result of access to distant manufacturers was that houses in this district almost always exhibited some form of ornamentation that was not produced locally, and more complex housing forms were constructed.

Subtype: Folk Victorian Vernacular

Folk Victorian Vernacular style homes were built nationally from 1870 until around 1910. The Folk Victorian Vernacular style includes a number of simple vernacular housing forms, such as Gabled Ell (also known as Gable Front and Wing), Gable Front, Pyramidal, and Side-Gabled versions in either 1- or 2-story houses.[73] The spread of Vernacular Folk Victorian houses was made possible by the expansion of the railroad system. Shipment by rail made it possible for local trade centers to acquire woodworking machinery necessary for production of inexpensive Victorian details. Local lumberyards could also get delivery of abundant supplies of precut details from distant mills. Three rail lines served Jefferson City in 1897,[74] providing ready access to manufacturers of building products. Many local builders simply grafted pieces of this newly available trim onto the traditional folk house forms they were used to constructing. Fashion conscious homeowners could also update their homes by adding a new Victorian porch. Vernacular Folk Victorian styles typically exhibited spindlework, turned posts, or other machine-made trim.

The Gabled Ell subtype of Vernacular Folk Victorian house derived from earlier Greek Revival styles, which used the gable front to imitate stylized pediments on the front facade.[75] This type of house was promoted in plan books of the middle- and late-nineteenth century and in catalogs of the early-twentieth century, the same time that development was occurring in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The Gabled Ell provided housing for both middle- and lower-class families, varying in size accordingly. In response to the demand for such housing, local builders constructed houses based on the same plan, with only minor variations.[76] A Gabled Eli house at 606 State Street was constructed circa 1870.

The Gable Front, or Open Gable house, first became popular as part of the Greek Revival movement. Gable Front houses built in the nineteenth century often featured a side entry hall that was typical of Greek Revival style houses, while later houses had no hallway. Houses of this type typically had a 3-bay facade, with the orientation of the body of the house being perpendicular to the street.[77] Gable Front houses were usually rectangular, may have been 1- to 2-stories in height, and exhibited a front-facing gable. Almost without exception, Gable Front houses had a front porch, which may have varied in width. As a simple Vernacular Folk Victorian style, decorative details on houses of this style were usually subdued and are often restricted to the front porch. In the early-twentieth century Craftsman movement, the Gable Front form was used in styled Craftsman homes, and many modest folk houses without stylistic detailing were inspired by these houses from 1910 to 1930.[78] The Gable Front house subtype served the housing needs of middle- and working-class families.[79] Two adjacent examples of the Gabled Front subtype are located in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The 2-1/2 story house at 511 Capitol Avenue was built circa 1910, and 513 Capitol Avenue, a 1-1/2-story house, was built circa 1880.

The Side Gabled house subtype was constructed throughout the country in 1- and 2-story forms from 1870 to 1910. One-story examples include both hall and parlor (one room deep) and massed plan (two or more rooms deep). Two-story versions are I-houses (one room deep) with varying amounts of Victorian detailing added. Porches may extend across the entrance only, or the full width of the front facade On 2-story versions, porches may be either 1- or 2-stories in height. Victorian detailing is usually limited to the front porch and the central gable, if one exists.[80] Examples of Side Gabled houses would be 423 East High Street (built circa 1870), 512 Capitol Avenue (circa 1873), and 516 Capitol Avenue (1873).

Subtype: Italianate Style

The Italianate style of architecture was partly a result of the Industrial Revolution, as manufacturing industries spurred the growth of cities and small towns alike. At the same time, there was a rediscovery by Americans of European culture. Those with new-found wealth due to the rise in industry were encouraged to tour Europe, where they were exposed to different styles of architecture. Once exposed to such architectural variety, people began to demand buildings reflective of European culture.[81] Italianate houses were first built in the United States in the 1830s. Andrew Jackson Downing's pattern books, published in the 1840s and 1850s, popularized this style. Most examples of the Italianate style date from 1855 to 1880. The decline of the Italianate style began during the financial panic of 1873. Prosperity returned later that decade, but by then new styles such as Queen Anne had replaced the Italianate.[82]

The Italianate style became popular by 1855, typically a 2- or 3-story, cubic house, with characteristic wide eaves supported by prominent brackets. The brackets were used on virtually all Italianate houses.[83] The Italianate house was designed to be as tall as it was wide, giving a cubic appearance, even though a rectangular form was typical. Exterior walls were smooth and plain, so that prominence was given to the doors, windows, and other decorative features. Porches were typically 1-story and restrained in their detailing. Entry doors may have been paired or single, and large pane glazing in the door itself became popular with this style.[84] The windows were tall, with a gently rounded arch at the top generally identified with the style. Window lintels were often highly ornamented, and windows on the front facade were frequently more decorative than those on other elevations.[85] Windows were typically 1/1 or 2/2 double-hung sash.[86] These houses had a strong vertical orientation, a low roof profile, and used ornamentation such as brackets, modillions, or quoins to highlight side walls, roof, and porch eaves. Fenestration was highly ornamented, and porches and entrances were decorated with brackets and cut or turned pieces.[87] Rear additions were typical.[88] The front-gabled form of Italianate house represents about 10 percent of the Italianate houses in America, and was usually found on narrow urban lots.[89]

The Italianate style or influence is exhibited on many houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, as well as a number of houses with mixed forms and styles — in particular, the Side Hall Plan house with Italianate styling so common in the 500 block of Capitol Avenue. Characteristics of this style include a 2- or 2-1/2-story house, a low-pitched roof, widely overhanging eaves with decorative brackets below, tall narrow windows often with elaborated hood molds (inverted U-shape), and occasionally a square cupola or tower.[90] Examples of the Italianate style are 731 East High Street (1870) and the Italianate Side Hall Plan houses in the 500 block of Capitol Avenue, built circa 1870 to 1873.

Subtype: Queen Anne Style

The Queen Anne style was "the culmination of all the Victorian styles,"[91] and it played on a contrast of materials, sometimes using molded or specially shaped bricks as decorative accents.[92] Features typically identified with the Queen Anne style are a steeply pitched roof of irregular shape, usually with a dominant front-facing gable; patterned shingles, cutaway bay windows, and other devices used to avoid a smooth-walled appearance; and an asymmetrical facade with a partial or full width porch, usually 1-story high and extending along one or both side walls. Four subtypes are associated with the style nationally: Hipped Roof with Lower Cross Gables, Cross-Gabled Roof, Front-Gabled Roof, and Town House. Decorative subtypes usually fall into one of the following categories: Spindlework, Free Classic, Half-Timbered, or Patterned Masonry.[93] With neighborhood builders' preference for masonry construction, it is not surprising that the Patterned Masonry subtype was favored in the district, although the use of wood shingles in the front gable was fairly common, even on masonry houses. The Queen Anne style was popular for American houses from 1880 to 1910. Due to the use of pattern books, there were almost no regional differences in Queen Anne houses.[94] Interior floorplans in Queen Anne houses were given even greater freedom, as plans moved farther from the classical symmetry of previous styles.[95]

The Queen Anne style is one of the most popular styles in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, represented on 17 houses. A number of houses with mixed styles and forms exhibit Queen Anne style detailing. Houses influenced by this style were popular in the district from 1885 to 1905 and were usually built for successful upper middle class merchants and businessmen. The most notable examples are the architect designed houses in the district. The Warden's, or Marmaduke House, at 700 Capitol Avenue was designed by Montgomery Fred Bell of Fulton, Missouri and completed in 1888 using prison labor. Ivy Terrace at 500 Capitol Avenue was designed by local architect Charles Opel for Gov. Lawrence V. (Lon) Stephens in 1893. The Marmaduke House is an excellent example of a masonry Queen Anne house, while Ivy Terrace is a combination of brick and frame. Another excellent example of a masonry Queen Anne house for which the architect is unknown is the J. Henry and Hilda Asel House at 210 Lafayette Street, built in 1898.

Subtype: Gothic Revival Style

The Gothic Revival style was popular from 1840 to 1880.[96] Features indicative of this style are a steeply pitched roof, usually with a side gabled roof with steep cross gables, and the wall surface extends into the gable without an eave or other break. Windows will often extend into the gables, frequently with a pointed arch shape so identified with this style. A 1-story porch is usually evident, commonly with flattened Gothic arches for support. The asymmetrical style, such as the Gabled Ell versions found in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, is used in about a third of Gothic Revival houses.

A small number of houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District reflect the influence of the Gothic Revival style. Typically this was not a full expression of the style as may be found elsewhere, but was limited to a pointed arch window in the front gable of a 1-1/2-story residence. This type of example can be found on State Street, where two adjacent properties appear to have been identical originally. The houses at 620 and 622 State Street are both Gabled Ell type houses, each with a pointed arch window in the upper front facing gable. The other example of the Gothic Revival style is Grace Episcopal Church, at 217 Adams Street, constructed in 1898. This church features both the Gothic Revival and Romanesque Revival architectural styles.

Subtype: Second Empire Style

The Second Empire style was considered very modern in its day, as it imitated the latest French architectural fashions.[97] The Second Empire style was a consciously "modern"movement, deriving prestige from contemporary Paris, rather than any period from the past.[98] Following the panic of 1873 and the subsequent economic depression, the style rapidly passed out of fashion.

The Second Empire style is represented by only one building in the Capitol Avenue Historic District. The building at 413 Capitol Avenue is an excellent example of this style, with a patterned metal mansard roof, two 2-story semi-octagonal front bays and a smooth limestone facade.

The Victorian style houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District represent a departure from the Missouri-German Vernacular type that was prevalent throughout the neighborhood before 1870. These houses may have been the first to utilize building products produced outside the local community, while a few houses still exhibit Missouri-German Vernacular building traditions that were prevalent in prior years. The Italianate houses were the first Victorian style houses built in the district. Folk Victorian Vernacular houses were typically more modest houses for middle-class residents. Often built with vernacular house forms ornamented with Victorian details, these houses provided a comfortable residence for middle-class workers at MSP, the shoe factories and other local employers. Queen Anne houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District exhibit a variety of masonry and wooden detailing techniques, as well as unusually shaped windows, which serve to not only show off the skill of the mason but also the wealth of the successful businessman who owned the house. The Queen Anne houses in the district are among the larger houses and represent high-style examples of late-nineteenth century architecture. With their locations on major streets and/or key corner locations, they tend to dominate certain neighborhood streetscapes. The Second Empire and Gothic Revival styles, while not represented by a great number of buildings, add to the richness and variety of architectural styles represented within the Capitol Avenue Historic District.

Property Type 3: Eclectic Movement Styles

The editor of the Ladies' Home Journal, Edward Bok, expressed his view on the design quality of Victorian style American buildings by saying: "Where they were not positively ugly...they were...repellently ornate."[99] The Eclectic styles reflected attempts by designers to move away from the Victorian styles, and push American architecture in new directions. What is interesting about this period is that these new directions resulted in a great variety of architectural styles being constructed at the same time. Subtypes of the Eclectic Movement styles as different as Colonial Revival, Classical Revival, English Revival, Italian Renaissance and Craftsman were being constructed in neighborhoods simultaneously.[100] Eclectic Houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District included the following subtypes: Classical Revival, Colonial Revival, Neo-Classical, English Revival, Spanish Revival and Italian Renaissance.

Subtype: Classical Revival

The Classical Revival subtype began as interest in classical architecture developed after the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago during 1893. A classical theme dominated the exposition, as many of the period's respected architects designed dramatic colonnaded buildings arranged around a central court. Photographs of these buildings were widely distributed, and soon Classical Revival became fashionable nationwide. The major buildings in the exposition were of monumental scale, inspiring numerous public and commercial buildings in the years to follow. The subtype retained popularity from 1895 to 1950.[101] The Classical Revival subtype featured a projecting pedimented central pavilion, symmetrical facades, a variety of wall materials, and large windows.[102] This subtype became popular nationwide around 1905.[103] Classical Revival is represented by two buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, a house at 623 Capitol Avenue, built circa 1915, and an office building at 213 Adams, built circa 1947,[104] showing the longevity of the style.

Subtype: Colonial Revival

The Colonial Revival subtype developed from 1870 to 1940 in several different subtypes. After the Philadelphia Centennial of 1876, interest in early American architecture revived. In 1898 The American Architect and Building News began a series of photographs and drawings of early Georgian houses. This was followed in 1915 by the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, dominated by photographs of colonial buildings. Based on the understanding provided by these and similar works, the Colonial Revival houses built from 1915 to 1935 more closely resembled the originals of the styles than did those built earlier or later. The economic depression of the 1930s, World War II, and changing postwar fashions led to a simplification of the subtype in the 1940s and 1950s.[105] An outgrowth of this early interest in colonial American architecture was the development of the Georgian, Cape Cod, and Dutch Gambrel subtypes of Colonial Revival houses. Typical Colonial Revival houses were 2-story, 3-bays wide with symmetrical facades, and sometimes featured dormer windows. Unlike the Colonial originals that gave rise to this subtype, ornamentation from a variety of styles was used interchangeably. The addition of side and sleeping porches made these houses more functional.[106] Other identifying features of the Colonial Revival subtype were a hipped or side-gabled roof and full-width porch. Masonry was the dominant construction material in high-style examples of the subtype. Cornices were typically part of the boxed roof/wall junction with little overhang, frequently ornamented by dentils. Windows were usually rectangular double-hung sash. Dormer windows at the attic level, often one central dormer, are fairly common and may have featured a decorative round-top window.[107]

About the same time, Colonial Revival became popular. Based on architectural styles from America's past, Colonial Revival houses blended well with older neighborhoods and had a traditional charm all their own.[108] These qualities made this subtype popular nationwide. Colonial Revival was not usually a "pure" architectural interpretation, but rather an eclectic mixture of details from the earlier Georgian and Adam styles (and others) were commonly used. Pure copies of colonial houses were far less common than the eclectic version.[109] The four examples of the Colonial Revival style in the Capitol Avenue Historic District include: 212 Lafayette Street (1903), and 109 Jackson Street, 209 Cherry Street, and 415 East High Street, all built circa 1910.[110] The house at 109 Jackson Street is a transitional example, exhibiting both the Colonial Revival and Queen Anne styles. Another transitional example is located at 212 Lafayette Street, with a highly ornamented stone facade and a front porch typical of the Colonial Revival style. While 415 East High Street is considered non-contributing due to the modern replacement windows, most of its Colonial Revival detailing remains intact. A cutaway bay to the rear exhibits a Queen Anne influence. The house at 209 Cherry Street exhibits Colonial Revival detailing on a four square form.

Subtype: Neo-Classical Revival

The Neo-Classical Revival style developed out of the World's Columbian Exposition, held in 1893 in Chicago. A classical theme was established for the exhibition, and prominent architects designed dramatic colonnaded buildings, which faced a central court. These designs were heavily influenced by the Early Classical Revival and Greek Revival architectural styles, and incorporated Georgian and Adam features. Due to the attendance by many people and the extensive media reports depicting this style of architecture, these models of the Neo-Classical Revival style were embraced as the latest fashion. Although never quite as popular as the Colonial Revival style, Neo-Classical Revival had two waves of popularity. From 1900 to 1920, the style emphasized hipped roofs and simple, slender columns. Later, from 1925 to the 1950s, side gabled roofs and simple slender columns were typical.[111]

The Lester S. and Missouri "Zue" Gordon Parker House is typical of Neo-Classical Revival houses built between 1900 and 1920. The symmetrically balanced front facade is dominated by a full-height porch, with the porch roof supported by classical Ionic columns. The original workmanship is evident in the front portico, as the pilasters, which match the columns, are barely visible from the street, typical of the attention given to detail throughout the house.[112] The Neo-Classical style houses are not represented in great number in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, but the two examples are memorable. The Lester S. and Missouri "Zue" Gordon Parker House at 624 Capitol Avenue is an excellent example of the style. The house features a full-height central portico with classical pediment and Ionic columns and pilasters, a central entrance with sidelights and tall fanlight, and boxed cornice with frieze band that all serve to illustrate the Neo-Classical Revival style used in construction.[113] The other house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District constructed in this style is the W. Q. Dallmeyer House at 600 Capitol Avenue. This house dates to the mid-19th century, but was altered circa 1910 by the second generation of the Dallmeyer family to its current Neo-Classical appearance. The dominant feature of the house is its paired porches. The 1-story porch appears on both the 1898 and 1923 Sanborn Maps, while the 2-story central porch appears by 1940. The full facade porch beneath the portico features paired Doric columns, a smooth frieze and a denticulated cornice. The monumental 2-story portico over the entrance has two ornate Corinthian fluted columns on low buff brick bases, and fluted Corinthian pilasters on the facade. The portico is topped by a deeply recessed pediment, with foliage modillions at both the base and along the rake, and dentils below the base and along the rake. Both of these houses demonstrate the status of their owners, as important members of the business community. The Neo-Classical style was well suited to this purpose.

Subtype: Italian Renaissance

The Italianate Renaissance was used in construction of houses throughout the country during the early-20th century. Considerably less common than other styles popular during the same period, such as Craftsman, Tudor or Colonial Revival style houses, the Italianate Renaissance style was used mostly for architect-designed homes in metropolitan areas prior to World War I. Vernacular interpretations of the style became popular once brick veneer came into common use, and most of these houses date to the 1920s. During the 1930s and 1940s the style declined in popularity.[114]

During the first third of the 20th century, a number of revival styles were used in suburban residential architecture. The specific style was suggested through the use of massing appropriate to the style, proportions, materials and a few carefully selected details. In What Style Is It?, these revival style houses are all referred to as "Period Houses."[115] Some of the styles popular during this period utilized many of the same features, such as tile roofs, stucco walls, hipped roofs and overhanging eaves. The Italianate Renaissance house used the low, elongated form that was characteristic of so many styles popular during the 1920s. This revival style was more simplified than either the original Italianate style (circa 1840s) or the Italianate Renaissance Palace of the 1890s, often with smooth stucco exterior walls. Stucco was popular on houses of many styles during this era, but was particularly useful in providing the Mediterranean appearance appropriate to the Italianate Renaissance house.[116] The Spanish Colonial Revival,[117] Mission,[118] and Spanish Eclectic[119] styles all utilized features similar to Italianate Renaissance architecture. At the time these styles were being constructed, a wide variety of features would have been mixed and matched by makers of pattern books more interested in marketing building plans than in staying true to any particular architectural style.

Asymmetrical Italianate Renaissance houses are not common, and typically are rather rectangular buildings with an asymmetrical presentation of doors and windows on the front facade. The low hipped roof is usually clad in clay or ceramic tiles. Masonry walls are the rule in the Italian Renaissance style, as architects journeyed to Italy in the late 19th century and discovered that wooden walls were almost never used in the original prototypes of the style. In the duplex at 728 Capitol Avenue, the buff brick walls and low, elongated asymmetrical orientation of the front facade are some of the most striking features of the house's Italian Renaissance style. Other notable features of the style found on this house are the wide overhanging eaves with decorative brackets and groups of multiple windows. Houses of this period related to their landscape, and a distinctly formal front yard and informal back yard was developed. Usually a rear terrace, porch or patio was created,[120] as with the enclosed terrace at the front of the house. The other house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District built in the Italian Renaissance style is located adjacent to 728-730 Capitol Avenue, but facing Cherry Street. The house at 204 Cherry Street is a Foursquare type house with Italian Renaissance detailing. Like its neighbor, this house features buff brick walls and wide overhanging eaves with decorative brackets. The hipped roof and arched doorway on the second floor are other features typical of this style.

Subtype: Tudor or English Revival

Tudor, or English Revival, subtype houses were utilized nationally from 1890 to 1940. Houses of this subtype can be identified by their steeply pitched roofs, facades dominated by one or more prominent cross gables (usually also steeply pitched), tall narrow windows that are usually present in multiple groups and with multi-pane glazing, and massive chimneys, sometimes crowned by decorative chimney pots. Decorative (not structural) half-timbering was used on about half of the subtype's examples. The houses are usually side gabled, but less common examples include hipped or front-gabled versions. Brick wall cladding was the most common Tudor subtype. After brick veneering came into common use in the 1920s, it became the preferred exterior wall finish for even the most modest Tudor Revival examples. Brick first story walls may have been contrasted with stone, stucco, or wood cladding on principal gables or upper stories.[121]

The popularity of the Tudor subtype may be attributed to the influence of soldiers returning from World War I. These soldiers had observed French and English peasant cottages while stationed in Europe, and upon returning to the United States, they desired homes that reflected the picturesque complex forms and historical detail of the European examples.[122]

The Tudor or English Revival subtype described picturesque houses with steeply pitched roofs, stucco walls, and English detailing. Tudor Revival houses often had dark wood framing applied to the exterior,[123] but stucco walls were used in a relatively small percentage of this style house.[124] The house at 217 Cherry Street, built circa 1925, has stuccoed walls, a feature of a relatively small percentage of English Revival style houses. Most stucco sided houses are modest examples built before the 1920s, when brick and stone veneer techniques were developed and widely adopted. Stucco was used to disguise frame houses, and make them appear as masonry, either with or without false half-timbering.[125] The side gable form of this house is rare, as most houses of this style utilize a more complicated form with multiple front gables.[126] The house at 113 Adams Street, the only other house in the Capitol Avenue Historic District with this style, is a bit more typical, as the style typically included picturesque cottages with asymmetrical massing of steeply pitched roofs, stucco walls (not used on the Adams Street house), unusual window patterns and tali chimneys. An arched doorway opening and multi-paned windows are two other features of this style.[127]

Subtype: Spanish Revival Style

Following the Panama-California Exposition of 1915, architects began to look to Spain for inspiration, and found a long, rich series of architectural traditions. This influence evolved into the Spanish Revival style, which reached its peak during the 1920s and early 1930s, then lost favor during the 1940s. The style was common in the southwestern states, particularly California, Arizona, Texas and Florida where original Spanish Colonial buildings remained. The Spanish Revival style used decorative details of Moorish, Byzantine, Gothic or Renaissance inspiration. Dramatically carved doors were common on both high-style and modest examples of the style. Exterior walls were usually, stuccoed. Usually doors were emphasized by adjacent spiral columns, pilasters, carved stonework or patterned tiles.[128] Wrought iron balconets, red tile roofs, arched windows and curvilinear gables borrowed from the preceding Mission style were also popular with this style. The Spanish Revival style was so popular it was used even in areas that were never settled by the Spanish.[129]

Only one building in the Capitol Avenue Historic District represents the Spanish Revival style. The one building, however, is an excellent example of the style, and is located at 601 Capitol Avenue. This apartment building (Bella Vista Apartments), was constructed in 1928. This was a time when the Country Club Plaza was being developed in Kansas City, Missouri, most likely a greater influence on this building than the new communities being built in this style in California and Florida at the time. Another possible influence may have been the First Baptist Church, built in 1925 and located just one block west of the Capitol Avenue Historic District.[130] Unfortunately, the church was demolished in the 1980s and replaced with a modern structure. In spite of stucco being a material of choice for this style, the Bella Vista Apartments are brick, indicating the community's continued preference for brick over other materials.

Subtype: Art Deco Style

Art Deco is named for the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs and Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in 1925. Also called Moderne or Modernistic, the style "consciously strove for modernity and an artistic expression to complement the machine age." The style's emphasis was on the future, and was a conscious rejection of historical architectural precedents. This made Art Deco the first architectural style to depart from the popular revival styles. Ornamentation on Art Deco buildings typically consisted of low-relief geometrical designs, often in the form of parallel straight lines or zig-zags. The simplified forms of this style were characteristically produced through the use of concrete, smooth-faced stone and metal, with terra cotta, glass or mirrored accents.[131]

The Art Deco style is represented in the Capitol Avenue Historic District by the circa 1920 Prince Edward Apartments at 208 Marshall Street and by the former A&P Grocery Store at 209 Adams Street, built circa 1939. This style of architecture is rare, not only in the Capitol Avenue Historic District, but in all of Jefferson City. Most of the Capitol Avenue Historic District is known for its Victorian era architecture, while the Art Deco buildings illustrate the continuation of the district's development well into the 20th century. The Prince Edward Apartments demonstrate the demand for multi-family housing, as factory workers and state workers alike sought housing near their places of employment. The former grocery store was one of the first commercial buildings constructed on the east side of the 200 block of Adams Street, a former residential block. More commercial buildings followed, a parking lot was added for the grocery, and the Grace Episcopal Church expanded, so that eventually this block was converted to commercial use. This trend of expansion of commercial buildings into former residential areas of the district continued for several decades.

The end of World War I brought an abrupt end to the emphasis on subtypes based on large European models such as Classical and Colonial Revivals, and focused on different period styles. The introduction of brick veneer to balloon-frame buildings allowed middle-class families to afford houses based on styles that had been constructed of solid masonry in Europe.[132] The English Revival subtype houses in the district were examples of this change, as they were more modest in scale, and constructed with stucco walls or brick veneer.

The Eclectic styles had a fairly significant impact on the neighborhood, as at least 15 houses were constructed in some type of period revival style. This impact was reduced by the fact that the houses were scattered throughout the neighborhood, rather than clustered together. Of the Eclectic houses, Colonial Revival was the most prevalent in the neighborhood, with four examples of the style. No Period Revival homes within the district are known to have been architect designed, and so were likely the result of a purchased plan or kit. The Eclectic subtypes demonstrated a modern architectural emphasis being introduced to the Capitol Avenue Historic District. Even though new styles were introduced after World War I, the preference for brick construction remained clearly evident. The Capitol Avenue Historic District was changing, expanding to accommodate more middle-class families as soldiers returned from war ready to start their families, and construction that had slowed or halted during the war resumed.

Property Type 4: Craftsman or Bungalow Style

Because they were so easy to construct and easy to live in, the Craftsman, or Bungalow style gained incredible popularity in the early-twentieth century. In any American town Bungalows and their derivatives still make up a high proportion of the existing housing stock. Craftsman style houses constructed during the early part of the twentieth century reflected the cultural changes of the time. Fewer elaborate houses were built, resulting in more modest styles of housing. Transportation impacted the preferred styles, as lumber and stylistic ornaments could be ordered from a catalog company such as Montgomery Ward, Sears and Roebuck or Aladdin and shipped anywhere in the country. The automobile and streetcar lines impacted development patterns, as automobile garages began to appear and improved transportation options allowed people to live farther from work than ever before. This both expanded the size of the neighborhood and encouraged people to move from the older, more urban neighborhoods to newly developing neighborhoods on the outskirts of town. Technological innovations resulted in changes in the types of domestic architecture built during this period.[133]

In the early-twentieth century, the Craftsman style replaced vernacular types as the preferred style for middle-class housing. Electricity, indoor plumbing, and central heating influenced the arrangement of interior spaces. Improved communication networks resulted in architectural styles that reflected nationwide trends rather than regional or ethnic building traditions. Builders were able to replicate popular style houses that were depicted in a variety of pattern books, catalogs, and trade magazines. Architectural features were mass produced, changing the exterior appearance of buildings, and promoting a more homogeneous quality in neighborhood architecture.[134]

The Craftsman influence originated in southern California and became the dominant subtype for smaller houses built throughout the country between 1905 and the early 1920s. This subtype is usually characterized by low-pitched gable roofs, unenclosed eave overhangs, exposed roof rafters, decorative false beams or braces added under gables, and full or partial width porches with tapered square columns supporting porch roofs.[135] An excellent example of this influence is located at 618 Capitol Avenue. Typical of the Craftsman influence, the house has a low hipped roof with a broad overhang and exposed end rafters. The stone exterior provides the house a rustic, natural feeling, as emphasized by the Craftsman movement. Next door at 616 Capitol Avenue is another excellent example of the Bungalow style, that exhibits a mixture of brick, stucco, "half-timbering" and tile, as well as multiple front gables and short curved stucco porch piers on tall brick pedestals.

By the end of this period, the neighborhood was more or less complete, without large undeveloped parcels of land. The end of the Bungalow's popularity marked the beginning of the era where urban flight encouraged decline in the previously strong, close-knit neighborhood.

The Bungalow is significant as one of the most pervasive housing forms nationwide after the turn of the last century. This style represented the nationwide trend towards simpler housing. Bungalows were one of the last types of property built in the district prior to the impacts of urban flight to newer residential areas on the west end of town. The two Bungalow style houses in the Capitol Avenue Historic District replaced a single, older home on Capitol Avenue, and illustrate infill development typical of the evolution of the neighborhood.[136]

Property Type 5: Outbuildings

Virtually all of the outbuildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District are garages. There are a number of historic garages scattered throughout the neighborhood, as well as a few small houses that have served a variety of purposes. One of the most notable outbuildings is the garage located behind 210 Lafayette Street. Built of brick to match the associated house, this garage retains a great deal of architectural character. Another outbuilding of note is the stone garage behind 722 Capitol Avenue. It is believed that this garage, associated with the former Deputy Warden's House, was constructed with prison labor.

Garages in the early-twentieth century ranged from elaborate structures built to house an automobile to converted sheds or barns. As automobile ownership did not become widespread until after 1910, garages were not that common until the 1920s. Because many early garages were impermanent structures, with sills resting directly on the ground, the attrition rate has been high. Of those that remain many have been altered or replaced to accommodate larger vehicles in later years.[137]

Builders of early garages looked to the carriage barn for design guidance. The garage at 210 Lafayette is an example of this type of design. New garages often featured floorplans and large, sliding doors characteristic of carriage barns. Owners of small, steep urban lots often inserted a garage into a bank at streetside, where the facade of the garage might be continuous with a retaining wall.[138]

The 1910s and 1920s brought a period of popularization and experimentation in garage design, as automobile ownership broadened. The "Van Guilder Hollow Wall" process used special partitioned forms and quick-setting concrete to erect garage walls in a continuous row-by-row process, published in House Beautiful in 1915. The most common structure built during the 1910s and 1920s was the small utilitarian garage, often a simple balloon-frame structure covered with wooden siding, built from locally available materials. Two-bay garages became popular in the 1920s, many in anticipation of a second car. Extensions were often built onto older garages as cars lengthened in the 1920s.[139]

Outbuildings do not tell the whole story of a property, but they contribute to the information related by the main house with which the outbuilding is associated. Outbuildings tell us how people stored automobiles and other items, and their role in the overall development of the main building. Since the Capitol Avenue Historic District was developed with access to nearly every rear lot via an alley, outbuildings must have been extremely common. Examination of Sanborn Maps for the district confirm this theory. Over time, many of these small buildings no longer had a use and were lost due to lack of maintenance or desire for surface parking. Therefore only the sturdiest and best maintained examples remain in place for further study and evaluation.

Property Type 6: Commercial and Industrial Buildings

Through the first part of the 19th century, commercial buildings were often multi-functional, replaced in the latter part of the century by buildings designed for specialized use. Commercial buildings in the late 19th century featured large display windows on the first floor, to attract customers in from the street. Upstairs often provided residential space for the business owners or for renters, usually behind a symmetrical facade topped by a decorative cornice.

The earlier commercial buildings in the Capitol Avenue Historic District were built with two or more stories, allowing commercial use on the ground floor and residential or commercial use above. Most of the early commercial buildings were built as a 2-part block, with public or retail spaces on the lower level, often with large display windows, and where most of the ornamentation would be visible to passersby. Commercial buildings in the district were often built with typical Missouri-German red brick walls, arched window tops, and ornamental dentiled cornices. The upper levels had fenestration more residential in scale and pattern with much less ornamentation. The cornice was also a typical location for ornamentation, as a crowning touch to the successful business's architectural image. Subsequent alteration of the lower level front facade was typical for commercial buildings of this era, as exhibited at 100 Lafayette Street.

For the most part, the neighborhood's commercial buildings are not as ornamental as its residential, structures. The most distinguishing features of commercial buildings are found on the front facade, facing the street. The street facade provides the building with its identity, as the side and rear elevations were never intended to be seen by the public in most cases. Use of the commercial building's facade in advertisements, directories, atlases, and town views illustrated the importance of the commercial facade in portraying the successful image of the business it housed. The front facade was composed of ornaments, signs, and other distinctive features, and exhibited the best materials and workmanship.[140]

The Industrial building type in the Capitol Avenue Historic District is demonstrated by the circa 1900 former MSP Broom Factory at 530 State Street, and by the circa 1890 building at 100 Lafayette Street, which housed the Star Clothing Manufacturing Company. These buildings are typical of the form promoted by such architects as Albert Kahn (1869-1942) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These architects analyzed the problem of modern factory design and distinguished between the architecture of utility and the architecture of ceremony.[141] Care and emphasis in designing these buildings were given to expansive window openings which made use of natural lighting and ventilation.[142] The use of natural lighting and ventilation is emphasized by the number of windows on the front and side elevations. Another characteristic of the Industrial building type is the location of administrative offices toward the front of the building.

Commercial and industrial buildings represent economic activity essential to development and long-term support of the neighborhood. The businesses in commercial buildings provided products and services to support the needs of the residents, while businesses in the industrial buildings provided the jobs that generated demand for nearby housing. Therefore these buildings can demonstrate patterns of neighborhood development, including the expansion of commercial nodes over time and the linkage between industry and housing. Later period commercial buildings portray the strength of the neighborhood as it expanded, or as businesses responded to competition from outside the neighborhood.


[1]The Capitol Avenue Historic District was surveyed by the Urban Group as part of the Jefferson City Historic East survey, completed in September, 1992. Much of the information was derived from survey documentation, contained in individual survey forms. (Survey on file with Missouri DNR State Historic Preservation Office.)

[2]National Register of Historic Places website database, www.cr.nps.gov/nr/research/nris.htm and M. Patricia Holmes, "Missouri State Capitol Historic District" National Register Nomination, 7.4. (Nomination on file with Missouri DNR State Historic Preservation Office.)

[3]Steven E. Mitchell, "A Phase I Cultural Resources Survey of the MHTD Job No. J5S0352 Project Corridor. Report prepared by the Cultural Resources Section, MoDOT, for the Federal Highway Administration," 1994. (On file with Missouri DNR/State Historic Preservation Office) 1-2.

[4]History of Jefferson City. Missouri, n.d., 1.

[5]Myrene Houchin Hobbs, The Jefferson City Story, n.d., n.p.

[6]Harland Bartholomew and Associates, "Riverfront Development Plan and Historic Preservation Plan, Jefferson City, Missouri," June 1970, 6.

[7]Ford, 18.

[8]Urbana Group, "Jefferson City Historic East Architectural/Historic Survey Summary Report," (Jefferson City, MO: Missouri DNR/State Historic Preservation Office, 1992), 9.

[9]Dr. R. E. Young, Pioneers of High. Water and Main: Reflections of Jefferson City (Twelfth State: Jefferson City, Missouri, 1997), 36.

[10]Prussia refers to an area that was a former state of Germany, the largest of the German states with 13 provinces prior to 1919. Industrially and politically it was the most prominent state of Germany prior to WW-II. After 1945 it was partitioned among four Allied occupied zones, with most of its former provinces going to what is now reunified Germany, the USSR and Poland.

[11]Mitchell, "Phase I Cultural Resources Survey of the MHTD Job No. J5S0352 Project Corridor."

[12]Walter Schroeder, Department of Geography, University of Missouri-Columbia, unpublished map. Data from Beasley's Jefferson City Directory. 1877-78.

[13]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 9.

[14]Mark S. Schreiber and Laura Burkhardt Moeller, Somewhere in Time, 170 Years of Missouri Corrections (Marceline, Missouri: Walsworth Publishing Company, 2004), 5.

[15]The Jefftown Journal: Historical Edition, summer 1972, 4.

[16]History of Jefferson City, n.p.

[17]"Harper's Weekly," October 19, 1861. Plan of Jefferson City, Missouri.

[18]History of Jefferson City, n.p.

[19]Ford, 174.

[20]Ibid., 205.

[21]Ibid., 167.

[22]Ibid.. 168.

[23]Ibid., 168, 170.

[24]Ibid., 171.

[25]Ibid., 172.

[26]Gary R. Kremer and Thomas E. Gage, "The Prison Against the Town: Jefferson City and the Penitentiary In the 19th Century." Missouri Historical Review. Vol. LXXIV, Number 4, July 1980.

[27]Survey for Miss Walther by E. F. C. Harding, City Engineer, October 11, 1895. (On file with the Jefferson City Department of Community Development, Planning Division, Jefferson City, Missouri)

[28]1897-1898 City Directory.

[29]"LSP Talk," undated presentation notes, (Jefferson City, MO: Cole County Historical Society).

[30]J. W. Johnston, ed.. The Illustrated Sketch Book of Jefferson City and Cole County (Jefferson City: Missouri Illustrated Sketch Book Company, 1900), 331.

[31]J. B. Johnson, Buried Alive: or Eighteen Years in the Missouri State Penitentiary (Kansas City, Missouri: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Company, 1903), 11-12.

[32]The Jefftown Journal. 11.

[33]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 12-14.

[34]Missouri Slate Penitentiary: Illustrated. (Jefferson City: Hugh Stephens Printing Company, 1905), 26.

[35]The Jefftown Journal. 4.

[36]Laws of Missouri. 1913. January, 1913,147.

[37]Ford, 566.

[38]Beetem, Parker Nomination, 8-13.

[39]Hackman and Company's Jefferson City and Cole County Directory. 1913 (Quincy: R.E. Hackman, 1913), 299.

[40]Ibid., 316.

[41]Hackman and Company's Jefferson City and Cole County Directory. 1913.

[42]Ford, 416-417.

[43]Hackman and Company's Jefferson City and Cole County Directory. 1913. 316 and Polk's Jefferson City Directory. 1925. (St. Louis: R.L. Polk, 1925), 254.

[44]Information provided by Dr. Gary Kremer via e-mail, October 3, 2005.

[45]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 14.

[46]Survey of Menteer's Subdiv. of Inlot No. 133 by E.F.C. Harding, City Engineer, February 16, 1906. (On file with the Jefferson City Department of Community Development, Planning Division, Jefferson City, Missouri.)

[47]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 17.

[48]1977 Jefferson City Directory.

[49]Jane R. Beetem, "East End Drugs" National Register Nomination, 8-12. (Nomination on file with Missouri DNR/State Historic Preservation Office.)

[50]Beetem, Parker House Nomination, 7.3.

[51]Harland Bartholomew and Associates, Preliminary Report upon Growth of the Community, prepared for the Jefferson City Board of Education (St. Louis, MO, 1952), 11.

[52]Jane R. Beetem, "Historic Southside (Munichburg) Multiple Property Submission," National Register Nomination, E. 39. (Nomination on file with Missouri DNR/State Historic Preservation Office.)

[53]Landform Urban Planning Services, PGAV-Urban Consulting and Techniplan, Inc., St. Louis, MO "Comprehensive Plan Update" March, 1996. (Report on file with City of Jefferson, Department of Community Development.)

[54]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 22.

[55]Urbana Group, Individual property survey forms.

[56]Ford, 415.

[57]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 20; Survey Form for 212 Lafayette Street.

[58]Much of the information regarding historic architectural styles is taken from the Jefferson City Historic East Architectural/Historic Survey Summary Report, by the Urban Group, 1992.

[59]Philippe Oszuscik, "Germanic Influence Upon the Vernacular Architecture of Davenport, Iowa," in P.A.S.T. 10 (1987):17.

[60]Urbana Group, Summary Report, 9.

[61]The Illustrated Sketch Book of Jefferson City and Cole County.

[62]Charles van Ravenswaay, The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri. (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1977), 231.

[63]John A. Jakle, Robert W. Bastian, and Douglas K. Meyer, Common Houses in America's Small Towns: The Atlantic Seaboard to the Mississippi Valley. (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989), 141.

[64]Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 439.

[65]Allan Gowans, The Comfortable House: North American Suburban Architecture 1890-1930. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986) 87.

[66]Jakle, Bastian, and Meyer, 147.

[67]Ibid., 148.

[68]Ibid., 147.

[69]Jakle, Bastian, and Meyer, 149.

[70]McAlester and McAlester, 211, 263, 309.

[71]Ibid., 239.

[72]Russel L. Gerlach, Immigrants in the Ozarks: A Study in Ethnic Geography (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1976), 31.

[73]McAlester and McAlester, 309-10.

[74]The Urbana Group, Summary Report, 20.

[75]McAlester and McAlester, 90.

[76]The Urbana Group, Summary Report, 20.

[77]Ibid, 19.

[78]McAlester and McAlester, 90, 309.

[79]Herbert Gottfried and Jan Jennings, American Vernacular Design. 1870-1940. (Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA 1988), 186-187.

[80]McAlester and McAlester, 309, 313-14.

[81]Allen G. Noble, Wood. Brick and Stone: The North American Settlement Landscape. Vol. 1. Houses (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984), 140-41.

[82]McAlester and McAlester, 214.

[83]Lester Walker, American Shelter: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Home (Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1997), 138.

[84]McAlester and McAlester, 210.

[85]Noble, 141.

[86]McAlester and McAlester, 212.

[87]Noble, 198.

[88]Ibid., 141.

[89]McAlester and McAlester, 211.


[91]Walker, 152.

[92]John C. Poppeliers, S. Allen Chambers Jr., and Nancy B. Schwartz, What Style Is It? A Guide to American Architecture (Washington. D.C.: Preservation Press; New York: J. Wiley, 1996), 57.

[93]McAlester and McAlester, 263-64.

[94]Walker, 152.

[95]Poppeliers, Chambers, and Schwartz, 57.

[96]McAlester and McAlester, 197.

[97]McAlester and McAlester, 241-243.

[98]Mary Mix Foley, The American House (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1980), pp.103-104.

[99]Leland M. Roth, Getting the Houses to the People: Edward Bok, the Ladies' Home Journal, and the Ideal House," in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture IV. ed. Thomas Carter and Bernard L Herman (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991), 187-88.

[100]McAlester and McAlester, 13-14.

[101]Ibid., 343-346.

[102]Walker, 178.

[103]Walker, 178.

[104]Urbana Group, Inventory Forms.

[105]McAlester and McAlester, 321-26.

[106]Gottfried and Jennings, 190-91.

[107]McAlester and McAlester, 321-24.

[108]Ibid., 200.

[109]Ibid., 324.

[110]Urbana Group, Inventory Forms for 212 Lafayette Street, 109 Jackson Street, 209 Cherry Street, and 415 East High Street.

[111]McAlester and McAlester, 344-345.

[112]Beetem, Parker Nomination, 8-14.


[114]McAlester and McAlester, 398.

[115]Poppeliers, Chambers, and Schwartz, 84.

[116]Foley, 218.

[117]Walker, 210-11.

[118]McAlester and McAlester, 409.

[119]Ibid., 417.

[120]Poppeliers, Chambers, and Schwartz, 84.

[121]McAlester and McAlester, 354-358.

[122]Thomas W. Hanchett, The Four Square House Type in the United States," in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture. I Camille Wells, ed. (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987), 53.

[123]Gottfried and Jennings,193.

[124]McAlester and McAlester, 355.


[126]Ibid., 357.

[127]Gottfried and Jennings, 193.

[128]McAlester and McAlester, 418.

[129]Walker, 210-211.

[130]Beetem, Parker Nomination, 8. 20.

[131]Poppeliers, Chambers, and Schwartz, p.88-89.

[132]McAlester and McAlester, 319.

[133]Wolfenbarger, "Historic Resources of St. Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri," National Register Nomination, F.18-F.19.

[134]Ibid., F.19.

[135]McAlester and McAlester, 453-54.

[136]Sanborn Maps, 1908 and 1939.

[137]Leslie G. Goat, "Housing the Horseless Carriage: America's Early Private Garages," in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture. III Thomas Carter and Bernard L Herman, ed.(Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989), 62.

[138]Ibid., 65-67.

[139]Goat, 67, 69.

[140]Ibid., 16.

[141]Roth, 252-253.

[142]Daniel M. Bluestone and Harold J. Christian, The Ford Airport Hanger," Historic Illinois. Vol.8, No.2, August 1985, 2.


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‡ Jane Rodes Beetem, consultant, Capitol Avenue Historic District, Cole County, MO, nomination document, 2005, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.

Nearby Neighborhoods

Street Names
Adams Street • Cherry Street • High Street East • Jackson Street • Lafayette Street • Marshall Street