Photo: Dr. Henry Genet Taylor House, 305 Cooper Street, Cooper Street Historic District, Camden, NJ The Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. Photograph by John E. Doyle, 1985, for nomination document, Cooper Street Historic District, NR# 89001057, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places.
The Cooper Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [‡] .
The Cooper Street Historic District, covering approximately six blocks along Cooper Street, contains dwellings, offices, and commercial buildings that represent the development of Camden, New Jersey, between 1810 and 1937, the years when industry, commerce and agriculture combined to make this city the economic and urban center of Southern New Jersey. Cooper Street is one of Camden's oldest streets and was originally the terminus of a route from the southern New Jersey coast to the Middle Ferry, one of the early ferries that linked all of southern New Jersey to Philadelphia. By its geographic location, Cooper Street, literally became South Jersey's thoroughfare to downtown Philadelphia. The fortune of Cooper Street, and of Camden as a whole, rose when people and goods moved through them to board ferries to the larger city across the Delaware River. Both Cooper Street and Camden began a long decline as that traffic abandoned city streets in 1926 for the fast trip across the Benjamin Franklin Bridge elevated high above the district. The buildings within the Cooper Street Historic District include Camden's best remaining Federal houses and its most intact examples of nineteenth century houses as well as important office and bank buildings of more recent vintage. These buildings demonstrate the street's change from residential and professional to commercial. The district is also significant because of its distinctive architecture. Most of the buildings are larger than those in other areas of Camden; there are few of the rowhouses that line so many of Camden's streets. Many of the houses are the designs of prominent architects. The Cooper Street Historic District contains buildings designed by Hazelhurst & Huckel, J. Fletcher Street, Wilson Eyre, Hoxie & Button, Frank R. Watson, Bailey and Truscott and others, most of whom practiced in Philadelphia between the Civil War and the late 1920s.
Cooper Street has been one of Camden's most important streets for over two centuries. Laid out in 1765 as Middle Ferry Road, it became Cooper Street in 1773 when Jacob Cooper laid out the town of Camden. The street takes its name from the Cooper family, who maintained a successful ferry operation between Camden (called Coopers Ferry) and Philadelphia for over 150 years. Roads leading to the ferries radiated from Camden into all parts of southern New Jersey. The ferries provided the economic and social link between southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, America's most important colonial city.
In 1773, when Jacob Cooper laid out the plat of the town of Camden, it included the south side of Cooper Street between what were then King and Pine streets. Those street names were subsequently changed to Second through Seventh, the numbers used today. The north side of Cooper Street remained in the hands of the Cooper family, who prohibited residential development other than for their own family until 1842. Consequently, development moved rather slowly along Cooper Street. When development did occur, it did not follow the rowhouse pattern that prevails in most of Camden. Perhaps with the large Richard M. Cooper House (now demolished) and substantial early nineteenth century houses setting the style, many people who could afford large detached houses chose to build on Cooper Street.
It is not surprising that the oldest extant houses in the Cooper Street Historic District are on the south side of Cooper Street within Jacob Cooper's original plat. The Edward Smith House at 312 Cooper Street was built about 1810 and may be the oldest house in Camden's central business area as well as the oldest house in the Cooper Street Historic District. The house originally faced Market Street, which was within Jacob Cooper's plat. Edward Smith purchased a total of seven lots to create one spacious plot for the house he later called his "mansion house or summer residence." The house that Smith built was smaller than the present building but apparently was in the same general shape and height. When the house was originally built the view from its Market Street facade included the Delaware River.
Smith's will left the house to Esther Maskell Newkirk, and it eventually became the property of Matthew Newkirk, probably the son of Matthew Newkirk , merchant who was at one time one of the richest men in Philadelphia. The expansion of the house appears to have taken place under Newkirk's ownership, which continued until the late 1880s, when it became the property of the Camden Republican Club. During the club's ownership, a three-story Italianate house was attached to the west end of the Edward Smith House which, by that time had its present orientation toward Cooper Street. In the 1920s the First Church of Christ Scientist owned the building, and today the American National Red Cross occupies it.
The Edward Sharp House at 200 Cooper Street is individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places and is the next oldest house in the Cooper Street Historic District. Built within Jacob Cooper's plat of the Village of Camden, it originally occupied lot #42 at the corner of Cooper and Queen streets. Gideon Stivers, the builder, incorporated many fine Federal details into both the exterior and interior of the house. Stivers learned the carpentry trade in New York City, and he eventually moved to Camden, where, as one of the city's first architect/builders, he designed the first city hall on Federal Street and St. Paul's Episcopal Church on Market Street as,well as a number of bridges. He also served as the Mayor of Camden from 1830-38.
Dr. Samuel Harris, who had studied medicine with his father and initially practiced in Philadelphia, moved to Camden in 1811 to become the first physician to settle permanently in the city. In about 1825 he purchased the Edward Sharp house at sheriff's auction. Here Harris set up his office and a drug dispensary, the only place where medicine could be purchased in Camden for many years. By establishing his offices on Cooper Street, Dr. Harris seems to have started a tradition of physicans settling in the area.
There is little evidence of further development along Cooper Street until near the middle of the nineteenth century, when construction started on the north side, on land that the Cooper family had hitherto reserved for agricultural use. Smallpox epidemics and westward migration westward resulted in slow population increase in Camden during the early nineteenth century. The entire area that is today Camden County contained only 7,600 people in 1820. However, the town of Camden soon began to grow rapidly. The coming of the Camden & Amboy railroad in the 1830s, and improved ferry service to Philadelphia gave rise to new businesses and commercial enterprises, so that the population of the City of Camden reached 3,371 by 1840. The creation of Camden County as a political entity distinct from Old Gloucester County in 1844, and the designation of Camden City as the county seat four years later, spurred further growth that would make the City of Camden the most important center in southern New Jersey. Cooper Street benefited directly from these events.
Several houses in the Cooper Street Historic District represent the development of Camden just before the Civil War. The earliest of these, the Isaac H. Porter House at 425 Cooper Street, is a simple Greek Revival semi-detached house built about 1846. In 1850, Porter was a Surrogate, probably meaning that he probated wills and settled estates, and by 1863 he had become a collector of revenue. The house has always been a residence, and was owned in the 1920s by Alphonso Irwin, a dentist, reflecting a trend, among district properties to be owned by members of the medical profession. Other attached and semi-detached houses in the Greek Revival mode are scattered along several blocks of Cooper Street. Numbers 325, 327, 329, 417 and 419 Cooper Street are similar houses dating from about 1850. Two were built on land belonging to Hannah Atwood and one on the land of the Cooper B. Knight Estate, suggesting that they were built on speculation. No. 224 Cooper Street, which still retains its white marble raised basement, front steps, lintels, and sills, was the home of Isaac Wilkins, whom the city directory of 1850 listed as a "gentleman." James Francine, another "gentleman," moved from Philadelphia to Camden in his later years and built the house at 517 Cooper Street about 1850, living there until his death in 1866. The largest Greek Revival house in the Cooper Street Historic District is the three-story rectangular house with a nearly flat roof at 401-403 Cooper Street. It was built by George W. Carpenter, a lumber merchant, in about 1850. (The lumber business thrived in Camden, partly because the gently sloping Camden shoreline of the Delaware River permitted extensive lumber storage.) Carpenter's large house remained a residence until the 1920s, when it became an office for four doctors.
Several houses in the Cooper Street Historic District date from the era of the Civil War. The Stimson-Woolston House at 301-303 Cooper Street has Renaissance Revival elements and dates from about the time of the Civil War. It was the home of Isaiah Woolston, a Camden landowner and merchant. There are several Italianate houses that date from the same time. Numbers 413 and 524 Cooper Street were both built as residences and were adapted for professional and office use in the 1920s. A pair of houses that now have Italianate facades are the A.G. Ackley House at 406 Cooper Street and the William D. Parrish House at 408 Cooper Street. The Ackley House has a low-pitch gable roof and was probably more in the Greek Revival style when originally built about 1850. The Italianate details resulted from an alteration about ten years later. Like many houses in the district, it was a private residence until the 1920s, when it became a physician's office. The Parrish House, attached to 406 Cooper Street, dates from about 1860. This house passed into the Carpenter family and then became the home of William C. Dayton, a Camden attorney and a director of the Camden Safe Deposit and Trust Company and the Camden and Atlantic Railroad. J. Lynn Mahaffey, a physician, purchased the house and in 1916 hired the architect J. Fletcher Street to make alterations and additions. Street served apprenticeships with Frank Miles Day and other prominent Philadelphia architectural firms before establishing a partnership there with H. Rex Stackhouse. Street designed alterations and additions to 408 Cooper Street after his partnership ended and he launched an independent practice. Joseph H. Murray, purchased the building and operated a funeral parlor there starting in 1931.
One of the most impressive residences is the Reinboth-Hatch House at 412-414 Cooper Street, built about 1861. This Italian Villa style house with its square tower has been attributed to the firm of Hoxie and Button. Joseph Reinboth, a real estate broker, probably built the house and lived in it for several years. By 1877 it was the home of Cooper Browning. After Browning's death, the property was purchased by Joseph Hatch, father of Cooper B. Hatch, mayor of Camden from 1898 to 1902. This large house, like many others in the Cooper Street Historic District, became physicians' offices in the 1920s.
From the close of the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century, construction in the Cooper Street Historic District continued with single-family houses in a variety of styles popular at the time. The Sallie Ackley House at 228 Cooper Street, in the Italianate style, is the earliest surviving stone house in the district. Mrs. Ackley was the wife of Henry Ackley, a medical doctor who died after contracting yellow fever in the Civil War. The house at 321 Cooper Street, also in the Italianate style, was built in the same year as the Ackley house. It was the home of J.C. De La Cour, a Camden chemist, or pharmacist, who owned a number of stores.
Among the Italianate houses from the last third of the century are 300, 302, 405, 513, 622 Cooper Street. Benjamin Shreve, a Camden attorney with offices on Market Street, was the first owner of No. 622, a highly detailed brick and brown tone house. John Smith, a Camden builder, constructed the two brick houses trimmed with brownstone at Nos. 300 and 302 Cooper Street. Grant Stockham, a real estate broker, built another pair of brownstone and brick houses at 204 and 206 Cooper Street. Louis T. Derousse, Camden city comptroller, built the house at 210 Cooper Street. Four other houses dating from the same time were also built as private residences, and by the 1920s had become physicians' offices.
The Second Empire style with its mansard roof was the choice of many Camden residents and appears within the Cooper Street Historic District, as it does in cities throughout America. Joseph J. Read, a real estate and insurance broker with a Horatio Alger type life, moved to Camden after retiring from his cooperage business in Philadelphia. Read, who held large investments in real estate in Philadelphia, Camden, and Atlantic City built the house at 429 Cooper Street for himself. Dr. Henry Hunt moved to Camden in the 1860s practicing medicine and becoming the first president of the West Jersey Homeopathic Society. Hunt also selected the Second Empire style for his grey stone house at 511 Cooper Street. Other physicians continued to occupy the house well into the twentieth century.
As the century came to a close, the architecture within the Cooper Street Historic District continued to be stylishly up to date, representing the financial status and taste of the residents. Wilson Eyre, Jr., one of Philadelphia's most influential architects, designed the house at 305 Cooper Street for Dr. Henry Genet Taylor. Built in 1885, this house is individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Philadelphia architectural firm of Hazelhurst and Huckel designed two houses within the district: 527 Cooper Street, which was the home of John T. Cox, secretary and treasurer of Anderson Preserving Company; and 323 Cooper Street, the second home of Joseph C. De La Cour. Bailey and Truscott, another Philadelphia architectural firm, designed the Chateauesque houses at 538-542 Cooper Street for John Cheney, who was in the insurance business. In the 1920s, physicians occupied portions of these houses, which eventually became law offices.
The largest nineteenth century building in the Cooper Street Historic District is the Centenary Tabernacle Methodist Church, located at the southwest corner of Cooper and Fifth streets. Centenary Methodist Church built a brownstone chapel at the rear of the church lot in 1868. The Gothic church, built in 1892, was the design of Frank Rushmore Watson, a Philadelphia architect who specialized in churches. The old Tabernacle Church building that stood at Third and Pearl streets was demolished to make way for the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, so its congregation merged with the Centenary Church to the present Centenary Tabernacle Methodist Church.
The early-twentieth century buildings along Cooper Street are virtually the only tangible evidence of the city's industrial and commercial growth after 1900. Camden's now-silent waterfront gives little evidence that it was once the site of a booming shipbuilding industry. Another strong presence in Camden at the turn of the century, the Victor Talking Machine Company, is gone, with the exception of some of the operations of RCA, its corporate descendant.
One of the new residences to appear in the district was William T. Read's house at 514 Cooper Street. Read, a prominent Camden attorney, commissioned the Philadelphia firm of Baily and Truscott, who had already designed the Cheney Houses on Cooper Street, to design his house. Both partners in the firm had practiced separately, had worked with other well-known Philadelphia architects, and had designed a number of buildings in Camden. Although their office was in Philadelphia, Arthur Truscott, a native of England, lived much of his adult life in Camden. A few other private residences, including the G. Wilbur Taylor House at 411 Cooper Street, were built during this period, but construction gradually shifted to larger buildings for apartment and commercial use.
The Helene Apartments, a four-story stone building at the corner of Third and Cooper streets, was one of the first apartment buildings in Camden. Its height, corner location, porches, and bay windows seem calculated to keep it in scale with the residential character of the street at the time. The Chalcar Apartments at 218 Cooper Street, attributed to the architectural firm of Edwards and Green of Camden, and the Bloom Apartments, created by altering 311 Cooper Street, also retained the general height and scale of earlier buildings.
Continued prosperity in the city and escalating real estate prices in central Camden inevitably led to the construction of larger and taller buildings. The opening of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in 1926 caused the demolition of some buildings on Cooper Street west of the district. Prevailing opinion held that the bridge would be a boon to Camden because it created a fast and easy connection to downtown Philadelphia. This optimism, which encouraged construction in the decade following the opening of the bridge, proved to be ill-founded, as later events would suggest that the bridge was one of the factors in the city's economic decline.
Nevertheless, the western blocks of the Cooper Street Historic District began to reflect the commercial nature of Camden in the early twentieth century. The Wilson Building was advertised as Camden's first office skyscraper. At twelve stories, it towered above its neighbor across the street, the Walt Whitman Hotel (now demolished) which had previously been the tallest building. With three high-speed elevators giving access to 150 offices, the Wilson building claimed to make Broadway and Cooper the business center of Camden. The Plaza Hotel at 500 Cooper Street, built in 1927, has also survived the Walt Whitman, and once had a reputation for a having a fine dining room and other services.
The Finance Building at Sixth and Cooper streets, built in 1928, is a two-story commercial building that offered stores and offices for rent. In 1930 it contained a restaurant and offices occupied by lawyers, dentists, realtors, opticians, and others. Nearby, at the corner of Cooper and Broadway, the First Camden National Bank and Trust Company, was constructed in 1928 according to a Neo-classical design of the architectural firm of Simon and Simon. This bank is a descendant of the oldest bank in South Jersey and in 1927 was a consolidation of the First National State Bank of Camden and the Camden National Bank.
The westernmost building in the Cooper Street Historic District, the Camden Elk's Lodge, was built in 1925 as the design of the architect Joshua C. Jefferies. This large brick building in the Neo-classical style was the headquarters for the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and contained an auditorium on the third floor.
Through World War I, Prohibition, and the Great Depression, the Cooper Street Historic District continued to reflect the economic and social vicissitudes of Camden. Just as a few small houses on Lawrence Street stood in the shadow of the early large residences on Cooper Street, some smaller row houses were built near the west end of Cooper Street in the early twentieth century. In 1937, just before the outbreak of World War II, one more large apartment house rose at 304 Cooper Street. By that time many of the older residences had been converted to other uses and the Cooper Street Historic District contained many physicians', dentists', and attorneys' offices as well as single and multiple family dwellings and commercial buildings.
In addition to its historical association with the growth and development of the city of Camden, the Cooper Street Historic District contains fine examples of the architectural styles popular during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the works of a variety of architects. The oldest houses on Cooper Street are in the Federal style, and one, The Edward Sharp House, is the work of Gideon Stivers, one of Camden's early builder/architects. Architects and builders are unknown for the group of early to mid-nineteenth century residences in the district, but most are in a modified Greek Revival style. Although there are examples of vernacular renditions of later nineteenth century styles, established architects designed a surprisingly large number of the districts buildings after the Civil War.
Joseph C. Hoxie, a native of Rhode Island formed a partnership with his brother-in-law Stephen Decatur Button, who was born in Connecticut. Both men practiced architecture in other places before settling in Philadelphia, where they became partners in 1848. Although the formal partnership was dissolved a few years later, the two men continued to work together on many projects. The Reinboth-Hatch House in the Italianate Villa style at 414 Cooper Street is attributed to them. They designed a number of buildings in Philadelphia; in Camden their works included residences, stores, schools, and churches. Included in the last category was North Baptist Church at Second and Pearl streets, not far from Cooper Street. They also designed at least three other houses on Cooper Street: the Benjamin Archer house, now demolished, and the Charles Carpenter and Anna Browning houses for which the addresses are uncertain.
Although the Italianate style was popular through America and was frequently adapted for urban rowhouses, the villa style with a tower generally appeared in the country or the suburbs, since that was the usual location of its model in Italy. Although the Reinboth-Hatch House has undergone some alterations over the years, it retains many of the usual characteristics of this style: the low or flat roof, overhanging eaves, round-topped windows set in pairs, and smooth wall surfaces. The central location of its tower makes it more symmetrical than most examples of the style. Lacking the strict rules of Greek or Roman architecture as imposed on Greek Revival and Classical Revival buildings, the Italian Villa style lent itself to mid-nineteenth century notions of the "picturesque." The "picturesque" as advocated by A.J. Downing and A.J. Davis, arbiters of taste in nineteenth century architecture, was asymmetrical and like a picture — an artistic ideal somewhere between the soft femininity of the "beautiful" and the harsh "sublime."
The best known and most influential architect to work in the Cooper Street Historic District was Wilson Eyre of Philadelphia. Eyre started working with James P. Sims and inherited the practice after Sims' death. In 1885 when Eyre designed the Dr. Henry Genet Taylor House at 305 Cooper Street he was practicing alone. The Taylor house was one of Eyre's earlier projects, most of which were residences in the Philadelphia area. Eyre had great admiration for the English residential style and published his own and other designs in House and Garden, of which he was a founder. Through his publications, exhibitions, and lectures at the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture he was in a position to influence both consumers and producers of residential architecture. Two other houses in the district, numbers 323 and 527 Cooper Street, built in 1886 and 1889, are designs of Hazelhurst and Huckel. Hazelhurst worked in the offices of Theophilus P. Chandler and Frank Furness in Philadelphia before establishing a partnership with Samuel William Huckel, Jr., also in Philadelphia. These two houses seem to be their only works in Camden, but they designed many houses, hotels, and office buildings in Philadelphia and nearby New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Huckel independently won the competition to redesign Grand Central Station in New York in 1900. Afterward he formed a partnership with Frank Rushmore Watson, who designed Centenary Tabernacle Church in the Cooper Street Historic District.
Samuel William Huckel, Jr., spent his early years as an architect in the office of Benjamin D. Price, a church architect, so it is perhaps not surprising that he eventually formed a partnership with Frank Rushmore Watson, one of Philadelphia's foremost church architects. Watson established a second office in Atlantic City in 1898, but most of his work continued to be in Pennsylvania. The Centenary Tabernacle Church, built in 1892, seems to have been his only work in Camden, but it is one of the most important buildings in the Cooper Street Historic District. The idea that the Gothic style was the most suitable one for Protestant churches emanated in part from the Ecclesiological Society, which expanded upon Augustus Welby Pugin's idea that Gothic was the only appropriate style for churches. Pugin was a convert to Catholicism and the Ecclesiological Society was Protestant. Frank Rushmore Watson did his first architectural work in the office of Edwin F. Durang, who concentrated on Catholic churches. Rushmore later applied the Gothic to protestant churches. There can be no mistaking that in late nineteenth century America, Gothic was the correct style for all churches, and Centenary Tabernacle Church is a fine example.
The firm of Baily and Truscott designed two houses that reflect the diversity of the firm. The William T. Read House at 514 Cooper Street was built in 1903 in a very strict Colonial Revival style. The John Cheney Houses in Chateauesque style at 538-542 Cooper Street were built nine years earlier. Although Arthur Truscott lived in Camden for much of his life, the firm's offices were in Philadelphia. The firm operated from 1890 to 1904, but its partners worked as architects both before and after these dates. William Lloyd Baily, in addition to being an architect, was an ornithologist. Following his education at Haverford College he worked in the architectural offices of Theophilus P. Chandler, Addison Mutton, Frank Miles Day, and Wilson Eyre, which gave him experience with some of Philadelphia's most noted architects. The firm of Baily and Truscott designed a number of residences and other buildings in Camden. Although its two designs on Cooper Street seem quite different, they are examples of the firm's most typical work. As the Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architects states, "In style the output was primarily colonial revival, with a strong reliance on the Pennsylvania farmhouse type. Many of the buildings firmly associated with William L. Baily, however, evince the influence of T.P. Chandler, and of Baily's. European travels, with primarily French-influenced detailing and massing."
The two styles exhibited in the Baily and Truscott buildings on Cooper Street were at the height of their popularity near the turn of the century and in the years immediately following it.
J. Fletcher Street lived in New Jersey for his entire life, but his architectural office was in Philadelphia. Street had a strong interest in landscaping, which was often an important feature of his designs. He designed residences, schools, churches, stores, and industrial buildings, a large percentage of which were in New Jersey. Street's one work in the Cooper Street Historic District was an alteration and addition to the house at 408 Cooper Street in 1916, when it was owned by Dr. Mahaffey.
Henry Byron Edwards and Alfred Green formed the partnership of Edwards and Green in 1923 in Philadelphia. Subsequently, in about 1928 they moved their office to Camden, where they both lived. The design of the Chalcar Apartments, built in 1925, at 218-22 Cooper Street is attributed to them. Joshua Jefferies designed a number of buildings in Camden from his Philadelphia office. The large Georgian Revival Elks Club at Seventh and Cooper streets is one of his designs. Edward Paul Simon and Grant Miles Simon, his brother, formed the architectural partnership of Simon & Simon in Philadelphia in about 1916. Best known as an architect of monumental buildings, Edward Paul Simon designed the Philadelphia Municipal Stadium and the Fidelity Trust Building on South Broad Street in Philadelphia. Simon & Simon designed several local banks and commercial buildings, including the First Camden Bank and Trust Building at Broadway and Cooper Street. The Neo-Classical Revival style of the 1928 building was extremely popular in the period between World Wars I and II. Its monumental proportions were apparently meant to inspire confidence in banks, government buildings, and other institutions.
Many buildings in the Cooper Street Historic District have been altered, but those changes often reflect the development of the district and are therefore significant in themselves. There are no totally incompatible intrusions in the district; even some of the new buildings that do not blend well with their neighbors fit into the overall scale and are not serious detractions from the general cohesiveness of the district. The Cooper Street Historic District boundaries set it apart from the new development of the Camden campus of Rutgers University, from the Cooper Grant Historic District, which consists chiefly of rowhouses; from the industrial buildings nearer the waterfront; and from the more modern commercial areas of downtown Camden.
Although many of the older residences have been converted to offices and multi-family units, little restoration or preservation activity is currently  underway. However, the general maintenance is reasonably good and no large-scale demolition is underway. The Cooper Street Historic District contains houses and other buildings that embody significant attributes of Camden's history as the gateway city of southern New Jersey. No other collection of buildings in Camden exhibit these associations so well.
Camden City Directories, 1850-1931.
Camden County Will Books.
Camden Courier, Nov. 1, 1926.
Camden Historical Society genealogical file.
"Centenary Tabernacle Methodist Church Anniversary Jubilee" Booklet in vertical file at Camden Historical Society
Courier Post. Oct. 20, 1985.
Dorwart, Jeffrey M. and Mackey, Philip E. Camden County, New Jersey 1616-1976 (Camden: Camden County Cultural and Heritage Commission, 1976).
Hopkins City Atlas of Camden, 1877.
Prowell, George R. The History of Camden County, New Jersey (Philadelphia, 1886).
Sanborn Atlas of 1926.
Tatman, Sandra L. and Moss, Roger W. Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architects; 1700-1930. (Philadelphia, 1985).
Withey, Henry F. and Elsie Rathburn Withey, Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Los Angeles, 1956).
‡ John E. Doyle; R. Craig (editor), City of Camden Department of Policy and Planning, Cooper Street Historic District, Camden County, New Jersey, nomination document, 1987, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.