The Cheshire County Courthouse is located at 12 Court Street, Keene NH 03431; phone: 603-352-6902.
The province of New Hampshire was divided into 5 counties in 1771. One of these was named Cheshire, deriving its name from a county in the west of England, celebrated for its manufacture of cheese; hence, the name originally. Keene and Charlestown were made the shire towns. The county was divided in 1827, taking off Sullivan County. The Connecticut River is the largest stream in both the state and the county. The Ashuelot River, rising in numerous ponds in Sullivan County, flows in a southwesterly direction through the towns of Marlow, Gilsum, Sury, Keene, Swanzey, Winchester and Hinsdale where it empties into the Connecticut River. It is one of the most important manufacturing streams in the state.