West Main Street Historic District
The West Main Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2011, The Gombach Group.
Established in 1785 as the county seat of Lincoln County, Lincolnton has always been the political and-commercial center of the county. The town enjoyed its greatest period of prosperity and influence during the first half of the 19th century and continuing to the Civil War, during which time numerous buildings were erected. However, as a result of rapid growth during the early decades of the 20th century and the destruction of many of the pre-Civil War buildings since 1960, Lincolnton's architecture is now primarily representative of the 20th century. Little survives of pre-Civil War Lincolnton other than the original placement of the courthouse square, the grid pattern of the central streets, a group of houses in the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street, and scattered other buildings. Located one block west of the courthouse, the West Main Street Historic District encompasses the 200-300 blocks of West Main Street and 114 North High Street. Included among the West Main Street Historic District's eighteen primary resources is the largest surviving collection of buildings erected in Lincolnton during the 19th century prior to the Civil War. This rare group of Federal and Greek Revival style buildings has become increasingly important within the context of Lincolnton given the loss, since the late 1960s, of at least five other buildings of the period that were also located on West Main Street, particularly in the 100 block. The West Main Street Historic District's pre-Civil War buildings are complemented by a collection of houses from the first half of the 20th century that includes good representative examples of the transitional late Victorian/Colonial Revival, Colonial Revival, Bungalow/Craftsman, and period cottage styles popular in Lincolnton during those years. The West Main Street Historic District fulfills criterion for listing in the National Register of Historic Places because of its locally significant architectural collection dating, particularly, from the 19th century prior to the Civil War, but also including houses that are good representatives of a variety of styles popular during the first half of the 20th century. The West Main Street Historic District's period of significance spans the years from ca.1819, the date of construction of the oldest building in the district, through ca.1941, the year in which the last architecturally significant house was erected, to ca.1945, the last year in which a significant remodeling of a contributing resource took place.
The steady influx of pioneers to North Carolina's backcountry during the eighteenth century prompted the General Assembly to repeatedly divide and create counties as a way of establishing more effective government. One of these counties, Tryon, was established in 1768. However, only eleven years later, in 1779, the General Assembly dissolved the county by splitting it into Rutherford County and Lincoln County. When formed, Lincoln County included 1,800 square miles (Brown and York, 246).
During the late eighteenth century, and 19th century until the 1840s, Lincoln County became one of North Carolina's largest, wealthiest, and most populous counties. It led the state in the value of many farm products, including wheat, orchard products, and dairy products, and was among the top producers of cotton and livestock statewide. In the late eighteenth century, forges and furnaces in Lincoln County were among many that were established in the western Piedmont; by 1840, the county's ironworks lead the industry in North Carolina, producing large quantities of iron castings, bar iron, and wrought iron tools. Other manufacturing activities, such as saw mills, grist mills, tanneries, paper mills, and potteries, enlivened the economy. Of particular significance, around 1813 Michael Schenck established the first successful textile mill south of New England. In 1816, it was destroyed by a flood, but three years later Schenck, James Bivins, and John Hoke erected a larger plant, the Lincoln Cotton Mills, on the South Fork of the Catawba River, which operated until the Civil War (Brown and York, 254-256, 258, 260).
The General Assembly tried several times, unsuccessfully, to establish a governing structure in Lincoln County. Eventually, three hundred acres in the county's center were identified as the best site for the seat of government, and on December 29, 1785, the General Assembly ratified an act establishing Lincolnton as the county seat (Brown and York, 246-247).
The county seat was to occupy fifty of the three hundred acres that had already been laid off into squares, streets, blocks, and half-acre lots. Lincolnton's symmetrically arranged grid plan dictated the development of the town during its early years, and much of the plan remains intact today. With the courthouse square in the center, four rows of streets were platted outward from the square to the east and west with blocks divided into three lots, four lots, and finally, five lots in the blocks farthest from the square. (On the north and south rows of lots, the central blocks north and south of the square have four lots each instead of three.) The whole layout was divided by Main Street and what is now Aspen Street into four squares — referred to in deeds as the northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest squares — with lots being numbered sequentially within each square (Brown and York, 247; Heritage, 253). Main Street was clearly intended to be the primary artery in Lincolnton and, in fact, it has always served as such. Beginning in 1885, Sanborn Maps show that East Main Street developed as the commercial center of town, while West Main Street was predominated by residences (Sanborn Maps, 1885, 1890, 1896, 1902, 1906, 1911, 1921, 1929, 1941).
Lincoln County's first courthouse was built of logs in 1785. In 1788 it was replaced by a frame building, which was demolished and replaced by a new courthouse in 1810. The third courthouse was replaced by a Classical Revival brick structure in the mid-1850s. That building remained in use as the county's seat of government until 1923, when the present Classical Revival stone courthouse was completed (Heritage, 253).
Lincolnton grew into a prosperous center of trade, culture, and government. In 1800 forty-eight whites and forty-four slaves lived in the town. In 1816, growth had continued to the point where the General Assembly authorized the laying off of additional lots in the town on land previously set aside, reserving tracts for an academy and a church. By 1820, the number of town lots had expanded from the original 100 to 161. The sale of town lots provided for the construction, ca.1821, of the Pleasant Retreat Academy for male students; it was followed several years later by the construction of a female academy (Brown and York, 262)
Lincolnton continued to grow. According to the Lincoln Courier, by 1845 five attorneys maintained offices along East Main Street, six physicians had their offices along both East and West Main Street, and merchants surrounded the courthouse. Additionally, the town supported four hotels, four grocers, three tailors, a watchmaker and jeweler, a printer, three saddle and harness makers, five coach factories, five blacksmiths, a cabinetmaker, two tanners, two hat manufacturers, two shoemakers, and a coppersmith, as well as five carpenters and two brick masons (Brown and York, 263).
Political developments in the 1840s, however, had a sobering effect on Lincolnton's future. In 1841 Cleveland County was formed out of part of Lincoln County, followed by the creation of Catawba County in 1842 and Gaston County in 1846. As a result, Lincoln County was reduced to 305 square miles. In the 1840s' partitions, Lincoln County lost prime farmlands and important factory sites to the new counties, and much of the county's momentum for growth was curtailed. Nevertheless, Lincoln County retained rich farmland — only less of it — and numerous good sites for future industrial development (Brown and York, 244, 263).
Growth in Lincoln County's population and economy remained static during the mid-19th century and progressed at a slow pace throughout much of the second half of the century. In 1887, the editor of the Lincoln Courier wrote that "Lincolnton is not dead. Her condition is simply comatose..." While the county's population grew from 9,573 in 1870 to 15,498 in 1900, Lincolnton's population actually dropped from 848 in 1860 to 828 in 1900. In the 1890s, a few houses, a Lutheran church, and other structures were erected. At the same time, the local government condemned frame buildings surrounding the courthouse in an attempt to reduce the risk of fire (Brown and York, 271).
During the first third of the 20th century, Lincoln County experienced considerable growth in industry and commerce. Though Lincolnton had been lethargic throughout the late 19th century, it began to flourish again in the early 20th century. Prior to 1902, two brick dealerships opened in Lincolnton and, by 1911, additional woodworking plants had been established. The Lincoln Co-operative Creamery Company was in operation by 1916, and the Coca Cola Bottling Company opened a plant in Lincolnton by 1921. The impact of these businesses on the local economy was surpassed, however, by the growing number of textile factories. These were centered in and around Lincolnton on or near the South Fork of the Catawba River and the town's two rail lines — the Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherford Railroad, whose western division stretched twelve miles west of Lincolnton by 1861, and the Chester and Lenoir Narrow Gauge Railroad, which reached Lincolnton in 1881. Lincolnton's population grew from 828 in 1900 to 2,413 in 1910 and then to 3,390 in 1920. By that time, brick commercial buildings had completely replaced frame structures around the courthouse, as well as in the 100 block of East Main Street, and one- and two-story frame houses proliferated beyond the center of town (Brown and York, 264, 270, 272-273).
During the late eighteenth century and early 19th century, West Main Street quickly became Lincolnton's premier residential street. Over time, the 100 block lost its houses to commerce and government, but the 200 and 300 blocks continued as a fine residential address. The buildings which line the two blocks do not follow a chronological progression from east to west. Rather, houses of different periods are scattered throughout the West Main Street Historic District.
Seven buildings date from the pre-Civil War years of prosperity in Lincolnton. Shadow Lawn (301 West Main Street) and the Michal-Butt-Brown-Pressly House (202 West Main Street) are the oldest houses in the district and reflect the sophisticated Federal style built in the town especially during the 1810s and 1820s. The Michael-Butt-Brown-Pressly House also reflects a later phase of Lincolnton's pre-Civil War prosperity with its fine, ca.1850 Greek Revival detailing. Other buildings constructed from the 1840s to ca.1860 — the Doctors' Office (206 West Main Street), the William H. Michal House (222 West Main Street), the Jacob Bisaner House (315 West Main Street), and the Houser-Hildebrand House (329 West Main Street) — also use the Greek Revival style to proudly express their part in the town's prosperity during those years. The Weaver-Sherrill-Wilkey-Burgin House (324 West Main Street) is believed to have been built as a small dwelling ca.1840 and then significantly enlarged ca.1875.
Lincolnton's relative lethargy during the second half of the 19th century is reflected in the absence of much building activity along West Main Street during that period. Only the Robert M. Michal House (208 West Main Street) appears to have been built during this time (ca.1880), and it is a simple, one-story frame, vernacular dwelling. The enlarged Weaver-Sherrill-Wilkey-Burgin House (324 West Main Street) nodded to the late Victorian period in its three-bay front porch, which retains chamfered posts and decorative sawnwork brackets.
Lincoln County's and Lincolnton's revived economy during the first third of the 20th century resulted in the construction of numerous houses during that period. The West Main Street Historic District reflects the upturn in the town's economy in its six houses built during the first three decades of the century. Three of the six — the houses at 201, 223, and 226 West Main Street — replaced older houses which had stood on their lots since at least 1906 (Sanborn Maps, 1906, 1911, 1921). The one-story house at 330 West Main Street, built ca.1905; the Saine-Rudisill House (217 West Main Street), built ca.1905 and remodeled ca.1925; and the 1918 Marcus H. Hoyle House (226 West Main Street) all exhibit a simplified Queen Anne style-influenced form with Colonial Revival or Craftsman Bungalow details. The ca.1925 Kent C. Turbyfill House at 201 West Main Street expresses the Craftsman Bungalow style in both its form and detail. The ca.1925 Robert Steve Reinhardt House at 223 West Main Street and the 1928 Sheldon M. Roper House at 114 North High Street exemplify different versions of the popular Colonial Revival style.
By the end of the 1920s, the lots on the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street were filled with houses. No additional construction took place until ca.1941 — the end of the West Main Street Historic District's period of significance — when Charles Hoover replaced an earlier two-story dwelling with a one-and-a-half-story brick period cottage at 309 West Main Street (Sanborn Maps, 1906, 1929). The fact that the Hoover House and three other houses from the district's period of significance are known to have replaced earlier dwellings confirms that the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street continued to be viewed as a desirable residential address.
The late 1960s through ca.1980 saw the construction of three one-story brick buildings which do not contribute to the historic and architectural character of the district. These buildings, located at 218, 306, and 323 West Main Street, include two small office buildings and the Lincoln County Public Library. On the other hand, the buildings from the 19th and first half of the twentieth centuries, which predominate in the West Main Street Historic District and do contribute to its historic and architectural character, have, for the most part, remained well preserved and well maintained, so that the district retains a strong level of historic integrity.
Lincolnton has been the political and commercial center of Lincoln County since the town's founding in 1785. Nevertheless, as a result of rapid growth during the early decades of the 20th century and the destruction of numerous pre-Civil War buildings in the past quarter century, Lincolnton's architecture now represents primarily the 20th century. Little remains of pre-Civil War Lincolnton besides the original placement of the courthouse square, the grid pattern of the central streets, a group of houses in the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street, and scattered other structures (Brown and York, 26).
Located in the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street, one block west of the Lincoln County Courthouse, the West Main Street Historic District possesses among its eighteen primary and eight secondary resources the largest surviving collection of buildings erected in Lincolnton during the 19th century prior to the Civil War — that period when the county seat experienced its greatest period of prosperity and influence. These buildings reflect the Federal and Greek Revival styles of architecture. Complementing the buildings from the first half of the 19th century up to the Civil War, the West Main Street Historic District also contains houses from the first three decades of the 20th century and ca.1941 that are good representatives of the transitional late Victorian/Colonial Revival, Colonial Revival, Bungalow/Craftsman, and period cottage styles popular during those years.
Two houses in the West Main Street Historic District reflect the Federal style, popular in North Carolina during the first decades of the 19th century. In Lincoln County, houses of this style were traditional in form with an overlay of Federal style detailing. The Michal-Butt-Brown-Pressly House (202 West Main Street), believed to have been built ca.1819, retains many Federal style details, although they are mostly seen on the interior of the house in such features as the six-panel doors, three-part mantels, and grained woodwork. On the exterior, the house exhibits such Federal style features as beaded-edge weatherboards on the facade and molded window surrounds and sills. The facade also shows evidence that originally the house had a pair of front entrances — a late-eighteenth early-19th century characteristic seen also at Woodside (National Register), a prominent ca.1799 house located in the Lincolnton vicinity. Shadow Lawn (301 West Main Street; NR), built for Paul Kistler in 1826, is the best example of the Federal style in the district. It is, in fact, one of only three surviving brick houses in the county — along with Ingleside (NR) and Magnolia Grove (NR) — that date from the 1810s and 1820s and depict the wealth and sophistication of Lincoln County's upper-class residents of the period. Like its companions, Shadow Lawn is constructed of Flemish-bond brick, is two stories tall with a steep side-gable roof, and is five bays wide. Shadow Lawn bears a striking resemblance to Magnolia Grove, not surprising in that the latter house was built two years earlier by David Smith, Paul Kistler's brother-in-law. Like Magnolia Grove, Shadow Lawn stands on a raised basement, has a single chimney on one gable end and a pair of chimneys on the other, and has flat brick arches above the windows and a molded brick cornice with concave and convex curves (Brown and York, 7, 10, 152).
Although more numerous than buildings in the Federal style, there are few surviving examples of stylish Greek Revival buildings in Lincolnton. The earliest known example and one of the most fully developed is the General Robert F. Hoke House on Chestnut Street. Built ca.1833, it is a large, two-story frame house with the only nineteenth-century H-plan in the county (Brown and York, 160). Most of the surviving Greek Revival buildings in Lincolnton were erected in the 1840s and 1850s. Four strong examples are located in the West Main Street Historic District.
The Houser-Hildebrand House (329 West Main Street) at the west end of the district was built ca.1842. Its unusual design — with a combined Flemish bond and common bond brick first story and weatherboarded frame second story that projects out over the first-story facade porch — is unparalleled in the county. The engaged first-story porch has stuccoed brick classical posts topped on the second-story facade by frame classical pilasters that reach to the roofline. The gable roof has flush gable ends with molded rake boards. Continuing in the Greek Revival tradition, the front entrance features sidelights and transoms.
At the east end of the West Main Street Historic District, the ca.1819 Michal-Butt-Brown-Pressly House (202 West Main Street) was remodeled in the Greek Revival style ca.1850, while retaining many of its Federal period features. The two-story frame form of the house with its low hipped roof with overhanging boxed eaves is similar in feel to the ca.1852 Barrett-Hoyle House on East Rhodes Street. However, owing largely to its Federal period origins, the Michal-Butt-Brown-Pressly House is more subdued in its presentation. Of particular note are its distinctive paneled frieze, its second floor interior trim, and its stuccoed interior-end chimney with dentiled cap and arched-panel stack suggestive of the Gothic Revival.
The remaining two strong examples of the Greek Revival style in the West Main Street Historic District are the ca.1850 Doctors' Office (206 West Main Street), built by Dr. Zephaniah Butt to accompany his adjacent house (202 West Main Street), and the ca.1854 William H. Michal House (222 West Main Street). Although only one story in height, the two frame buildings exemplify the Greek Revival temple form with a front-facing pedimented gable. The Doctors' Office has an engaged porch beneath its flush-sheathed, paneled, and pedimented gable. The porch wall is consumed with a central door with three-light transom flanked by large nine-over-six sash windows. The William H. Michal House provides the most classic example of the several Greek Revival temple form buildings in Lincolnton. Its pedimented gable roof has boxed and molded eaves, and its recessed front porch has a flush-sheathed wall and is supported by four classical, square-in-section, tapered posts with molded caps. The central entrance of the Michal House features a transom and fluted surrounds with corner blocks. In its broad pedimented gable and overall proportions, the Michal House is very similar to the 1850s Wallace Alexander House on South Aspen Street. The Alexander House, however, does not have a recessed front porch .
Two other houses in the West Main Street Historic District also date from the years prior to the Civil War, although they are not strong reflections of the Greek Revival. The oldest, east rear, portion of the frame Weaver-Sherrill-Wilkey-Burgin House (324 West Main Street) is believed to have been built ca.1840. (However, the house today presents a two-story, vernacular form — with a three-bay facade, a low hipped roof, and a three-bay entrance porch with Queen Anne style-influenced chamfered posts and sawnwork brackets — which probably dates from a ca.1874 remodeling). Across the street, the ca.1860 Jacob Bisaner House (315 West Main Street) — characteristic of many houses built in Lincoln County during the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries-is a vernacular I-house: two stories tall, three bays wide, and one-room deep, with a gable roof, gable-end brick chimneys, and a one-story rear ell. However, the Bisaner House also has features that are simple reflections of the Greek Revival: a boxed and molded cornice with molded rake boards along the flush side gables, and corner-block window surrounds with slightly projecting plain cornices. Its semi-circular entrance porch with classical columns and an ironwork balustrade and balustraded roof deck probably dates from a later Colonial Revival revision.
The survival of this group of pre-Civil War houses in the 200 and 300 blocks of West Main Street is all the more important given the loss of other buildings from the period that were also located on West Main Street until the 1960s. On the south side of the 100 block of West Main Street, both the North State Hotel and the Augustus A. McLean House were demolished to make way for the Lincoln County Citizens Center. The hotel was a three-story, Flemish-bond brick, antebellum structure; the ca.1848 McLean House was a Flemish-bond brick dwelling, five bays wide and two stories tall above a full basement. On the north side of the 100 block stood the ca.1820 David Ramsour House, a monumental two-story brick dwelling with a five-bay facade featuring four Corinthian pilasters and a triangular pediment. On the north side of the 200 block stood the ca.1824 Seagle-Boger House, a two-story frame, five-bay-wide dwelling. On the north side of the 300 block, on the site of the present Lincoln County Public Library, was the early-nineteenth-century Dr. Samuel P. Simpson House. It was a two-story frame dwelling with a low hipped roof. All five of these buildings were demolished in the late 1960s and early 1970s (Brown and York, 26-27).
The slowness of Lincolnton's economy during the second half of the 19th century is reflected in the buildings erected during that time. Construction during the period remained, for the most part, traditional in form. During the last quarter of the century, asymmetrically planned houses began to appear, but almost completely absent from the surviving architectural landscape are examples of well-developed and richly decorated Queen Anne-style buildings (Brown and York, 24). Within the West Main Street Historic District, the only surviving building that appears to have been erected during that period is the Robert M. Michal House (208 West Main Street), a small vernacular dwelling with a side porch and no salient stylistic features. Only the decorative porch on the Weaver-Sherrill-Wilkey-Burgin House (324 West Main Street), with its chamfered posts and decorative sawnwork elements, reflects the influence of the Queen Anne aesthetic. It probably dates from a ca.1874 remodeling.
With Lincolnton's and the county's revived economy during the first quarter of the 20th century, new houses typically exhibited eclectic mixes of styles and popular, asymmetrical plans. These houses were found in great numbers in Lincolnton and, to a lesser degree, in the more conservative surrounding countryside (Brown and York, 26). Six houses built in the West Main Street Historic District between ca.1905 and 1928 reflect the types of houses commonly built during this upturn in Lincolnton's economy.
Three houses — the house at 330 West Main Street, the Saine-Rudisill House at 217 West Main Street, and the Marcus H. Hoyle House at 226 West Main Street — exhibit a Queen Anne-style asymmetrical massing overlaid with eclectic detailing. The ca.1905 house at 330 West Main is a small, one-story frame cottage with an irregular configuration and a hipped and gabled roof. It is plain except for the bungalow posts of its front porch. At the opposite end of the district, the large, two-story frame Saine-Rudisill House was built ca.1905 with an L-shaped plan. When enlarged and remodeled ca.1925, it acquired a front porch with heavy, bungalow-type, brick posts. The 1918 Marcus H. Hoyle House is a two-story frame dwelling with a two-story, projecting, west front bay. Its simple Queen Anne configuration is "Colonial Revivalized" by the one-story facade porch with Tuscan columns and balustraded roof deck.
More straightforward examples of the Colonial Revival style are seen in the Robert Steve Reinhardt House at 223 West Main Street and the Sheldon M. Roper House at 114 North High Street. Both two-story frame houses utilize a symmetrical plan, a central three-bay block with center-bay entrance porch and grouped windows, and short one-story porch or sun-room wings at one or both ends of the house. Built ca.1925, the Reinhardt House is the more formal of the two and has a low hipped roof with widely overhanging eaves with paired brackets, balancing side wings, and a flat-roofed entrance porch with triple Tuscan columns at each corner. The 1928 Roper House — originally a one-and-a-half story dwelling but enlarged to a full two stories in the early 1940s — features a steep gable roof which is raised on front and rear to give the appearance of long shed dormers. Like the Reinhardt House, the Roper House entrance porch uses Tuscan column supports (one per corner), but they support a segmental-arched roof.
An additional house built in the West Main Street Historic District during the first quarter of the 20th century is the ca.1925 Kent C. Turbyfill House (201 West Main Street), the only Bungalow among the West Main Street Historic District's resources. Although its front and west side porches have been partially enclosed, the house still bears unmistakable characteristics of its style. The one-story brick structure has an irregular configuration, a hipped roof with intersecting shingled-gable wings, bungalow-style windows, and heavy brick porch posts like those on the porch of the Saine-Rudisill House. (Although the openings on the front and west side porches have been infilled, the posts remain intact and visible so that these areas can still be "read" as porches.)
No houses were built in the district in the 1930s. However, in 1941, just before the start of World War II, a new house was built at 309 West Main Street, replacing an earlier frame dwelling. Built by a doctor, the one-and-a-half-story Charles Hoover, Jr., House is not pretentious, but it was definitely fashionable when built. Stylistically known as a period cottage, the house is a relatively simple block form with a rear ell, made interesting through the use of colorful tapestry brick, asymmetry, and the use of facade features reminiscent of the Tudor Revival that romanticize the whole. In particular, the facade makes use of a pair of steep dormers on the west half of the steep gable roof, an off-center, double-shouldered chimney with round-arched brick panel, and an adjacent, round-arched, gabled entrance porch, echoing the round-arched openings and gabled roof lines of the northeast corner porch.
With the construction of the Hoover House and the early 1940s' remodeling of the Sheldon M. Roper House (114 North High Street), the West Main Street Historic District's period of significance ended. The only additional construction in the district, other than several garages and a carport, came from the late 1960s until ca.1980, during which time two small brick office buildings (218 and 323 West Main Street) were erected, and the large, one-story, Colonial Revival-inspired, Lincoln County Public Library (306 West Main Street) was built. Even with these noncontributing resources, the West Main Street Historic District continues to make a strong architectural statement locally with its important collection of buildings from Lincolnton's pre-Civil War history. Complementing this collection are buildings reflecting the minimal growth experienced by Lincolnton in the late 19th century and the prosperity that accompanied the first several decades of the 20th century — particularly ca.1905 through the 1920s, but continuing to the start of World War II.
Brown, Marvin A. and Maurice C. York. Our Enduring Past: A Survey of 235 Years of Life and Architecture in Lincoln County, North Carolina. Lincolnton: Lincoln County Historic Properties Commission with assistance from the Lincoln County Board of Commissioners, the City of Lincolnton, and the North Carolina Division of Archives and History, 1986.
Dellinger, Ann M. (historical researcher, Lincoln County). Research notes, April-May, 2002. Copies in survey files, State Historic Preservation Office, Raleigh.
Elmore, Lee and Madeline (owners/occupants of the Saine-Rudisill House). Phone interview with author, April 21, 2002. Interview notes in survey file, State Historic Preservation Office, Raleigh.
Harpe, Jason. Images of America: Lincoln County, North Carolina. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing for the Lincoln County Historical Association, 2000.
Lincoln County Heritage. Waynesville, N.C.: Don Mills, Inc. and the Lincoln County Heritage Book Committee, 1997.
Lincolnton City Directories. 1965-1984.
Sanborn Map Company. Sanborn Maps for Lincolnton, North Carolina, 1885, 1890, 1896, 1902, 1906, 1911, 1921, 1929, 1941.
† Laura A. W. Phillips, Architectural Historian, Consultant to the City of Lincolnton, West Main Street Historic District, Lincoln County, NC, nomination document, 2002, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.