The Jefferson County Courthouse is located at 220 North Main Street, Waurika, OK 73573; phone: 580-228-2241.
Prior to Oklahoma statehood, more than 2/3rds of Jefferson County was occupied by Indians of the Chickasaw Nation. The area opened up for non-Indian settlement through a lottery system with the 1901 Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Opening.
The 1906 Oklahoma Constitutional Convention created Jefferson County's borders. Ryan was designated as the county seat over Waurika and Sugden residents who also sought consideration. Disputed elections resulted in Waurika successfully claiming the seat of government in 1912.