Montgomery was incorporated in 1798 as one of the original 104 New Jersey Townships. Portions of the township were taken away to form Princeton (1813) and Rocky Hill (1889).
Montgomery is home to a number of historic hamlets, including Belle Mead, Blawenburg, Bridgeport, Dutchtown, Fairview, Plainville, Skillman, and Stoutsburg.
The township is named for Brigadier General Richard Montgomery. He first served in the British Army, but later became brigadier general of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
Some of the first purchasers of township land were speculators, Johannas Van Horn and Peter Sonmans. Many of the earliest settlers were of Dutch descent, coming from New Amsterdam, especially Long Island during the first decades of the eighteenth century.