College Hill Residential Historic District
The College Hill Residential Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2008, The Gombach Group.
College Hill Residential Historic District is formed in a rough triangular shape, as a built area. It is laid out with a regular street grid pattern in its western three quarter area. The northeast corner is set with a series of parallel streets that conform to this section's steep elevations, set with a few cross streets. The College Hill neighborhood is primarily residential in composition and architectural character. The campus of Lafayette College lies to the southwest of the district, and is composed of purely educational institutional buildings and campus grounds. Cattell Street contains a strip of mixed use commercial buildings converted from mostly mid to later 19th century residential structures, with a few full single use commercial buildings. The College Hill Residential Historic District contains three historic religious institutional buildings, three parks, municipal water facilities and the remains of the Rinek Mansion grounds. The Section 3 resource count includes one structure, the College Hill Reservoir, three sites as follows: Mid-to-North Delaware Drive/Eddyside Park, Nevin Park, Rinek Mansion grounds and one object, the Sullivan Monument/Park. But primarily, the College Hill Residential Historic District of the City of Easton is a large area of houses erected between the 1830's and up to 1940. College Hill contains a wide sampling of mid to later 19th century and early 20th century styles. These buildings are composed of a variety of materials of which brick, frame covered with clapboard, stone, and frame covered with stucco are the prevalent construction materials. Throughout the College Hill Residential District the overwhelming common roofing material is slate with some asphalt and few tile roofs interspersed. Overall the condition and integrity of these historic resources is high and they generally exhibit a high level of maintenance.
The neighborhood of College Hill is a politically defined ward within the City of Easton. The neighborhood is located in the northeast section of the City of Easton on a primarily sloping plateau at the base of Chestnut Ridge. Chestnut Ridge forms the northern boundary of College Hill (general top elevation 700 feet). The east boundary of College Hill begins at the southeast as a high 80 foot bluff that runs northeasterly to the vale area of Nevin Park. From there the elevation increases substantially to steep slopes and near cliff-like conditions. The southern boundary of the College Hill neighborhood is composed of the campus of Lafayette College which runs along the bluff facing the Bushkill Creek on its southern and western boundary. The northwestern edge of the College Hill neighborhood is bounded by a dense growth of mature trees just due west of the Pardee Street area.
The architectural mix of buildings in College Hill is high. The styles of buildings begin with two to three bay late Federal vernacular frame and brick row houses in the Clinton Terrace, New, McCartney and Cattell Streets' area and then to post-Civil War frame and brick Italianate single row houses. These period style houses are dispersed into primarily Clinton, New, High, Parson, Monroe, McCartney, Cattell, Brodhead and Paxinosa Street blocks. These two areas were the initially built residential blocks of the College Hill neighborhood from 1830's-1870's. The remaining sections of College Hill retain a high mix of later 19th century and early 20th century, well preserved, examples of residential architecture. The majority of these buildings were built between the period of the 1890's up until the 1920's. Their construction coincided with a sustained period of strong economic growth of the city as a manufacturing and regional trade center.
The College Hill Residential Historic District has always contained a varied mix of socio-economic class residents, and this is reflected in the varying scale of construction. This is also reflected with the existence of pattern-catalog built residences being built close or next to a number of professional architect designed houses in many areas within the district. The northwest sector however contains a higher concentration of early 20th century pattern-catalog houses, built primarily by the Speer Lumber Company. The northeast sector of the College Hill Residential Historic District contains a high proportion of large, professionally designed residences, manors and mansions that were built in association with the development of the villa sites of the Paxinosa Heights Development as planned by David W. Nevin beginning in 1890. These properties were termed villa sites as a marketing strategy during the period of 1890's-1920's.
In addition to these contributing buildings the College Hill Residential Historic District also contains churches, commercial buildings, the March Street School, the Municipal Water Filtration Plant and Reservoir buildings and structures as well as parks and open spaces. All of these were constructed during the period of significance of the district and retain a high level of integrity. Outbuildings within the College Hill Residential Historic District are not taken into the overall resource count. Specifically, the churches within the District are College Hill Presbyterian Church, St. Peter's Lutheran Church and Grace United Church of Christ.
The extant contributing commercial buildings within the College Hill Residential Historic District are located almost totally along Cattell Street. Almost all of these buildings are converted earlier residential dwellings into mixed use buildings. Nevin Park is a passive park space set aside and donated to the city by the developer David Nevin at the turn of the century. Its well-preserved landscaping and features reflect the period's American Beautiful City Movement. Other historic open space occurs at the Delaware Drive and Eddyside Parks along the Delaware River. Created during the 1920's these parks retain a majority of their period landscaping and park structures, in varying conditions. As well, the Sullivan Expedition monument is within the College Hill Residential Historic District. This small passive park is a simply landscaped green space set with a monument marker in good condition. The Rinek Mansion grounds on Paxinosa Avenue are the most substantive remains of formal gardens in the College Hill Residential Historic District, although the mansion has long since been demolished. Constructed at the turn of the century the paths, gazebos, fencing and extensive native plantings survive. All throughout College Hill from the villa sites to the pattern-catalog built residences, a practice developed of planting lawn areas with intensive and expansive plantings. This has created an attractive primarily early 20th century suburban landscape ambience that still exists today and is the main landscape architectural aspect of the district.
Within the College Hill Residential Historic District lies the water filtration plant and College Hill Reservoir. These contributing buildings and reservoir, reflect the state of water supply engineering from 1900-1930. The grounds are sensitively landscaped and the buildings are of quality construction and detail designed to integrate into the character and grade of construction of the neighborhood. In the instance of non-contributing buildings most are of new post 1940 construction. However a small portion of the non-contributing buildings are older dwellings that have been so altered by post 1940 renovations that they have lost their period of significance. The non-contributing buildings are of a similar siting, scale and material selection to contributing resources. These aspects cause the non-contributing resources to have only a moderate to low negative effect on the overall character within the College Hill Residential Historic District.
As previously stated, the College Hill Residential Historic District contains a high mix of architectural styles of residential buildings. The predominant and most prevalent styles are the following: Gothic Revival, Italianate, Queen Anne, Stick style, Colonial Revival, Classical Revival, Tudor Revival, Dutch Colonial Revival, Georgian Revival, Foursquare and Homestead Temple House. The following are well-preserved representative examples of each style within the College Hill Residential Historic District: 406 Clinton Terrace (circa 1875-85) is a large 2 1/2 story Gothic Revival frame villa. Its floor plan form is based upon a central-hall type plan. Its stylistic hallmark is the drip molded window lintels and decorative bargeboard gable trim and Gothic detailed bay window. The Italianate style is represented by 215 Reeder Street and 125 Cattell Street. Both 125 Cattell Street (circa 1874-80) and 215 Reeder Street (circa 1860's) are frame 2 1/2 story high by 3 bay wide rowhouses and represent the original detail and context of many of Italianate row houses within the College Hill Residential Historic District. They retain their original wood siding, bracketed main cornice and decorative door entablature and window trimming both simple and pedimented crowns. The Stick style is represented by 515 Clinton Terrace and 719 Cattell Street. 515 Clinton Terrace (circa 1875-85) is a frame 2 1/2 story villa whose clapboard is framed with vertical and horizontal boards and siding placed in varying direction. The roof is composed of steeply pitched cross gables and pyramidal roof. The south porch is composed of a full first-story veranda with decorative trim. 719 Cattell Street (circa 1880-90) is a 2 1/2 story frame cottage form townhouse. This elaborate Stick style piece of architecture is fitted with steeply pitched cross gable roof forms that lead down into a tiered assemblage of roofs to compose a main porch entry. Its whole exterior is fitted with an elaborate arrangement of decorative half timbered inspired gables and bands.
Queen Anne residential buildings are represented by 130 Porter Street and 205 Reeder Street. In terms of sheer numbers, the Queen Anne style is the most prevalent type of 19th century architecture within the College Hill Residential Historic District, as reflected in formal and urban vernacular forms. 130 Porter Street (circa 1874-82) is a two-story frame townhouse fitted with a three-story corner picturesque tower and mansard main roof pierced by decorative trim dormers. The exterior is marked with horizontal siding surmounted by a fish scale pattern shingles. 205 Reeder Street (circa 1880's) is a classic example of Queen Anne Villa composed of hipped roof and cross gable roof form fitted with corner three-story tower. The whole exterior is fitted with picturesque details, decorative vertical shingle work as well as a large porch veranda.
The Colonial Revival style has many variations throughout the College Hill Residential Historic District. 319 Clinton Terrace and 525 Mixsell Street represent this style. Designed by William Michler in 1929, 319 Clinton Terrace is a brick 2 1/2 story palatial Colonial Revival villa. Its exterior is marked by academic reproductions of Colonial detail and trim popular at the time. 525 Mixsell Street was also designed by William Michler in 1900. It is built on the first floor with frame covered with stucco. On the second floor its hip roof is marked with a picturesque widows walk, detailed dormers. Its walls are fitted with liberal interpretations of Colonial styled lintels and fenestration. Its porch is a refined arrangement of a simple Colonial porch supporting a period revival molded porch roof.
The Classic Revival style residence is a significant component of College Hill's historic housing stock. 604 Cattell Street was designed by William Michler in 1895. Its walls are composed of vitrified brick and stucco surfaces. Its whole exterior is a balance of selected Classic detailed arrangements of opening and trim. 322 Reeder Street, designed by William Michler in 1908 is representative of the Classic Revival influence that is a prevalent within the College Hill Residential Historic District. Here, the basic Foursquare form of the residence is highlighted by a reserved application of Colonial Revival trim details to the hip roof dormer, central bay window and columned entry.
The Tudor Revival style influence within the College Hill Residential Historic District is represented by period textbook examples such as 426 Clinton Terrace and 336 Reeder Street. In 1898 William Michler designed 426 Clinton Terrace for John and Carrie D. Rice family. The frame with stucco and half-timbered veneer villa is an early regional exponent of the Tudor Revival stylistic influence. This structure is surmounted by steeply pitched roofs pierced by gable dormers and varied eave-line heights. The exterior is clad with decorative half timbering across its elevations. 336 Reeder Street was again designed by William Michler for Edward and Cora Fox family in 1899. This villa is set with a one story stone base with dressed stone trim surmounted by 1 1/2 stories of frame covered with stucco and dimensional half-timbering. The roof is composed of cross gables pierced by dormers and picturesque details and gable vergeboards.
The Georgian Revival style influence is represented by 321-323 West Pierce Street and 333 Reeder Street. 321-323 West Pierce Street (circa 1910-20) is a brick mansion duplex set with a central bay fitted with an extended porch. Its slate roof is pierced with academic replications of period dormers. As well, all the cornice work and fenestration is detailed with academic reproductions of period trim. 333 Reeder Street (circa 1905), designed by William H. Wenzelberger, architect, is a pure Georgian Revival, frame covered with siding, manor house. Its lines and detail are derivative of recorded examples of Colonial New England buildings. Its 2 1/2 story mass is surmounted by a slope roof pierced by two dormers. The lower levels are symmetrically arranged set with a central hooded entry.
The Dutch Colonial Revival style is portrayed by 324 Paxinosa Avenue and 108 Pennsylvania Avenue. 324 Paxinosa Avenue (circa 1890's) is a classic early Dutch Colonial Revival Cottage. It is fitted with Colonial Revival detailed windows and dormers. Its first story is set with picturesque period details fenestration and veranda porch. 108 Pennsylvania Avenue (circa 1919) is a well-preserved example of an eclectic mix of Dutch Colonial Revival form fitted with varying Palladian and minor Tudor half-timbered details. Its steeply pitched gambrel slate roof rests upon brick masonry of 1 1/2 stories.
The College Hill Residential Historic District contains a large inventory of pattern-catalog built residences. The dominant form of these structures is the Foursquare and the Homestead Temple House, built between 1910-30. The Foursquare is represented by 424 McCartney Street and 517 McCartney Street. 424 McCartney Street is a 2 1/2 story cast concrete block single residence fitted with a pyramidal roof set with picturesque detail. Its fenestration is fitted with minor Classic Revival detail. The first floor is a full Classic Revival detailed porch. 517 McCartney Street is a cast concrete (first story) and frame covered with shingle residence three bays wide by four bays deep surmounted by a pyramidal roof. Its reserved Classic Revival trim detail is contained within the dormer, cornice fenestration entry and porch areas.
The Homestead Temple House is characterized by 614 Coleman Street and 308-310 West Monroe Street. 614 Coleman Street built between 1906-15 was constructed by the Speer Lumber Company as part of their 46 acre development parcel. This 2 1/2 story frame structure is fitted with its hallmark front gable and one story Classic detailed porch. 308-310 West Monroe Street, built 1905-1915 has the same front gable 2 1/2 story form set with a one-story classic detailed porch, all constructed of cast concrete block.
The integrity of the College Hill Residential Historic District is high. The majority of contributing buildings is intact and well preserved. The high socio-economic class buildings are all almost totally unaltered from their period of significance form. The middle working class housing is generally well preserved in form with a small portion of these buildings being altered in such a manner that takes away from their period of significance.
The general integrity of the building pattern, lot and street landscaping throughout the College Hill Residential Historic District is well maintained. This neighborhood has retained its appeal and sylvan early 20th century suburban style setting along with a high survival of varied residential building forms from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The College Hill Residential Historic District is an historically and architecturally significant area of Easton. It is the most extensive single collection of varying mid to late Victorian residential architecture within not only the City of Easton, but the Lehigh Valley Region as well. College Hill was the principal residential area for the successful industrial and merchant class families within the city during the later 19th and through the early 20th centuries. Included in the College Hill Residential Historic District are resources associated with individuals who were significant in Easton's past such as the homes of locally prominent industrialists Arnold Gerstell and William Haytock and of prominent developer, D. W. Nevin. As well, College Hill has served as a major place of residence for a large number of middle working class families within the city.
The southern three-quarters of the current land area of College Hill were part of the original 1,000 acre tract of land of Easton. This tract of land was set aside for Thomas Penn in 1736 by Benjamin Eastburn, Surveyor General. The occupation and use of the College Hill area for the period of 1736 to 1789 is not known at this time. Documentation does indicate that between July 27th and August 23, 1789 that the proprietors of Pennsylvania had the total area of the original 1,000 acre tract resurveyed and divided into lots. This activity was done at the request of Anthony Butler, Esquire, agent for the proprietors to lay out Easton Township.
The plot map for this activity (dated 1789) records the existence of two roads, Wind Gap Road, later called Sullivan Lane and what is known as High Street. The land generally due west of Sullivan Lane was a single large lot. Fourteen lots were surveyed off of what is now High Street and the east side of the then Sullivan Lane. This survey activity allowed land acquisition to begin within this area. The intent of the proprietor's activity is apparent in that they wished to encourage development within then Easton Township to expand from the original 1752 town plot area of what is now downtown Easton. Speculative acquisition of these lots began immediately. Over eleven of the fourteen were purchased by August 13, 1789 as sold by Anthony Butler, Esquire. No occupation of these lots is known at present.
Records do not indicate the character of the area until the 1830's. In 1832 Lafayette College purchased nine acres of land in the southern third of the neighborhood-and moved there in May, 1834. The existence of Lafayette College spurred known residential growth off campus just due east of its property below High Street. The earliest surviving residential buildings within the district were constructed as a result of developing housing for teachers and some service trades for the college population. As Lafayette College grew so did the residential neighborhood just due east. By 1874 the area below Parson Street was built about three-quarters solid with residences. The difficult climb for horse-drawn vehicles up College Avenue deterred large scale residential growth on College Hill until a major event took place in 1887. David W. Nevin formed the Lafayette Traction Company for the purpose of erecting an electric trolley line from Centre Square in downtown Easton up to College Hill. By January 14, 1888 this line extended up College Avenue and Cattell Street to Burke Street, then from the Bushkill Creek Bridge. The line was subsequently extended due east on Burke Street to Paxinosa Avenue. This electric trolley line was the third in the United States and the first to go up over steep 15% hill grades. This trolley street line immediately encouraged the growth of residences along the blocks its line passed. In essence, College Hill became Easton's first suburban home area attracting middle and upper class families to buy or build suburban style houses and villas in the styles of the period.
Arnold Frederick Gerstell, Howard Rinek and William R. Haytock are representative of these prominent families. Arnold Frederick Gerstell was President of the Alpha Portland Cement Company for fifteen years beginning in 1899. During his tenure, the Alpha Company significantly expanded its operations from 300,000 barrels yearly to 7,000,000 barrels yearly. As well, he was responsible for the electrification of the plant, an early innovation for industrial plants of the region. Howard Rinek was the president of the family business, the Rinek Rope Company, located along Bushkill Drive in Easton. This cordage company was a major supplier of cordage to the anthracite mining operations of northeast Pennsylvania. As a community leader, Howard Rinek was keenly interested in the electrification of the city, and the development of trolley lines. To this extent, he personally installed the first incandescent electric lights in Easton within his home on College Hill, and founded the Edison Illuminating Company to supply the city's first source of electricity. As well, he was involved with the supervision of the construction of a number of the trolley lines throughout the city at the turn of the century.
William R. Haytock was heavily involved in the areas' thriving silk mill industry from 1903 up through the 1920's. William, along with his brothers Hartley, Benjamin and John managed and further developed a series of silk mills within the region formed eventually as the Haytock-Gronemeyer Company. These mills were one of the major forces of the silk-industry in this section of Pennsylvania. William Haytock served as chief executive of Haytock-Gronemeyer Company and President of the Aroca Silk Company. These three men are representative of the gathering of industrialists and professionals who resided on College Hill. As a group, this population played a major role in not only Easton's economic and social development, but the surrounding region as well. Arnold Gerstell resided at 800 Mixsell Street. Built in 1899 and designed by William Michler, architect, this well preserved eclectic stone masonry villa is one of the finest private residences built in the late 19th century within the city. Howard Rinek resided in a villa at 401 Paxinosa Avenue which was demolished at his death. However, the elaborate landscaped grounds and their plantings and architectural features survive. These rambling walks, plantings, gazebos are the best preserved within College Hill. William Haytock resided at 609 Cattell Street. This palatial Colonial Revival style residence is one of the best preserved examples of its style within the district.
By 1890 the trolley line was extended from Burke Avenue turning at its intersection with Paxinosa Avenue, then north to Parker Avenue. At this time again David W. Nevin played a key role in the growth of College Hill. In 1887 Nevin had purchased lands within the total northeast sector of the now College Hill neighborhood. On these lands in 1890 he laid out, as developer, with civil engineer, J. Marshall, villa sites for Paxinosa Heights. This area includes generally, lands off East Lafayette Street, upper Mixsell Street, Taylor Avenue, Parker Avenue, upper Paxinosa Avenue and Pennsylvania Avenue surrounding Nevin Park. It is in this area, on larger open lots that a number of the finest examples of early 20th century residence villas were built. Nevin promoted Paxinosa Heights in 1887 as " the new, high, healthful and picturesque suburb of Easton, Pennsylvania..." Construction on villa sites began immediately and proceeded up to 1925. Many of these residence/villas were built in popular styles of the period, late Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Classic Revival, Tudor Revival, Italian Renaissance Revival, Georgian Revival being the most prevalent stylistic forms.
A number of the buildings built on College Hill between 1890 to 1920 were designed by architects of the period of regional and national prominence. The most noteworthy on the national level was the firm of McKim, Mead and White and Joseph Huston. McKim, Mead and White designed 200 High Street which reflects the eclectic mix of architectural styles prevalent of the period and is a well-preserved example of that firm's residential work. Joseph Huston designed the College Hill Presbyterian Church in 1896. Huston is well known for his designs of the Pennsylvania State Capitol Building. The College Hill Presbyterian Church is a well-preserved example of his church work in a Romanesque Revival mode. By far, the single most influential architect on College Hill was William March Michler. Michler, a local architect, designed and built and/or rehabilitated thirty-nine residences on College Hill between 1898 and 1934. Of these, thirty-seven survive in a good state of preservation to date. Michler was an Easton native, a graduate of Lafayette College, he went on to receive his architectural training at the University of Pennsylvania from which he graduated in 1895. Michler's many residences reflect a broad range of architectural styles from the simple, albeit Victorian styling of the Fletcher Knight house, 1898 (604 Cattell Street) to the stark lines of the 1913 George Rambo House (208 West Lafayette Street). Michler's rise as Easton's most prominent architect parallels the rapid industrial expansion in Easton from the 1890's up the 1920's which is directly reflected in the substantial houses of the prominent families that he built on College Hill.
By 1891 the trolley line was fully extended up Parker Avenue up to and over Chestnut Ridge due northeast in the College Hill Residential Historic District. This final length of line tied in all of the current Paxinosa Heights area for its subsequent development.
Another reason for this extension was to provide trolley line access to the Paxinosa Inn. This turn-of-the-century resort hotel was built in 1888 on top of Mount Paxinosa (site just outside district boundaries). This hotel, built by local interests, was never financially successful. It was subjected to two devastating fires, one in 1905. It was then rebuilt in total and again destroyed by fire in 1931, after which it was never rebuilt.
Beginning in 1906 to 1940 another major area of College Hill was developed due to one business, the Speer Lumber Company of Easton, located at 901 Bushkill Drive. The Speer Lumber Company located in Easton in 1906, coming from an earlier business locale in nearby Penn Argyl, Pennsylvania. The firm headed by W. E. Speer, evolved into a high quality custom millwork facility and lumber supply. Its marketing area served throughout the Lehigh Valley in Pennsylvania and eastward throughout Warren County in New Jersey. It provided custom millwork for public buildings within this region and many sets of millwork for private homes both custom built and pattern book. The company remained in existence until the 1940's when it became the Hummel Lumber Company which still exists today at the original location utilizing all of the original buildings built there between 1906-1920. Beginning with its 46 acre parcel of land in the northwest quarter of the neighborhood, the Speer Lumber Company built and sold up to 200 residences. Most of these structures were built for middle working class families. All of the buildings they built were based upon pattern-catalog designs that Speer Lumber Company built as a total package. These structures were pattern-catalog interpretations of popular architectural styles with Colonial Revival, Classic Revival, Foursquare, and Homestead Temple House, single and duplex residences being the majority of types constructed. On a number of instances, the Speer Lumber Company was even engaged in building elaborate and more costly models of their catalog buildings near and in some instances in the Paxinosa Heights villa sites area of College Hill. The quality and level of construction of all of these structures was high, as maintained by the construction standards of the Speer Lumber Company. As time elapsed from 1910 to the 1930's and up until 1940, these two areas merged as a cohesive whole to form the character of College Hill. The overall level of quality of construction and detail and variety of architectural styles produced a neighborhood of attractive and diverse primarily 2 1/2 story residences that became the largest grouping of such buildings within the city and immediate metropolitan area.
The residences of College Hill Residential Historic District are architecturally important in Easton and the Lehigh Valley region in that it constitutes the single most extensive collection of varying mid to later 19th century and early 20th century residential architecture. Several other aggregations of these forms of architecture exist within the City of Easton and the Lehigh Valley region. These are Lachenour Heights in Easton, Fountain Hill and Mount Airy neighborhoods in Bethlehem and the neighborhood area surrounding the Fairgrounds section within the City of Allentown. None of these, however, are as extensive and diverse within a single cohesive socio-economically mixed neighborhood as exists within the College Hill Residential Historic District.
College Hill Residential Historic District is historically significant for its association with the leading late 19th and early 20th century industrial and merchant class, professional and working middle class families of Easton during the city's period of major industrial economic growth. It is architecturally significant as forming the single most extensive collection of mid to later 19th and early 20th century forms of residential architecture not only in Easton, but the Lehigh Valley region and neighboring environs of western central New Jersey.
 The Comfortable House: North American Suburban Architecture 1890-1930. Alan Gowans, MIT Press, 1986. The term "Homestead Temple House" is a defined building type that was generally built as a pattern-catalog building. Its architectural form is defined by its gable and roofed facade set with an offset entry opening directly to a straight staircase. This arrangement is derivative of the earlier (late 18th to 19th centuries) Classic Temple front of higher styled buildings. This adaption evolved from the popular, either conscious or unconscious associations with the vernacular Georgian/Colonial/Classical house that developed between 1830 and 1870. The architectural details of this building type are often composed of Classic Revival design. The facade of these dwellings is always highlighted by a full or partial porch arrangement set with Classic Revival details. As a building type, these pattern catalog dwellings developed around 1890 and continued to be built up into the 1930's.
The Forks of the Delaware, Ethan Allen Weaver, Easton, PA, 1900.
History of Northampton County, Volumes 1, 2, 3 William J. Heller, 1920.
Historic Easton from the Window of a Trolley Car, William J. Heller, Easton, PA, 1911.
Papers and records of the Hummel Lumber Company, Easton, PA
Estate papers of David W. Nevin, owned by Mrs. Madeline Masterman, Easton, PA
City engineering records and archives, City of Easton, Easton, PA
Research and oral interview files for College Hill Historic District Nomination, Preservation Planning Office, City of Easton, Easton, PA
House Tour Guide Books, College Hill Area for years 1981, 1982, 1983, 1986, 1987, 1989 as conducted by Historic Easton, Inc., Easton, PA
1896-1954 Sanborn Insurance Maps of Easton, PA
† Jones, Thomas E., City of Easton, College Hill Historic District, nomination document, 1990, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.