Fanwood Park Historic District
The Fanwood Park Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2013, The Gombach Group.
The Fanwood Park Historic District is the earliest and the most well-preserved area of Fanwood Park (now the Borough of Fanwood), one of several early railroad suburbs established by the Central Railroad of New Jersey (CRRNJ) during the 1860s and 1870s to encourage passenger and commuter traffic on a railroad that was otherwise chiefly a freight hauler. The Fanwood Park Historic District is historically significant as a representative late nineteenth century picturesque railroad suburban community. Of all of the towns along the CRRNJ Main Line, Fanwood has one of the strongest direct ties with the CRRNJ as the Fanwood Park Historic District was laid out by the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company (CNJLI Co.), the development company created by the CRRNJ in 1867. From the late nineteenth into the early twentieth century, the Fanwood Park area grew as an attractive site for commuters utilizing the CRRNJ to reach jobs in the metropolitan New York area.
The CRRNJ and its land development company played a major role in the development of two of the CRRNJ's suburban towns, Fanwood and Dunellen. Fanwood Park, with its larger lots and curvilinear streets, best exemplifies a picturesque "Railroad and Horsecar Suburb." In addition, the houses within the Fanwood Park Historic District represent typical late nineteenth and early twentieth century architectural styles.
In 1664, the area known as New Netherland changed from Dutch to British control. In October of that year, a group of British called the "Associates" acquired the 500,000 acre Elizabethtown tract from the Native Americans. The tract included all of present-day Union County and parts of Essex, Middlesex, Somerset, and Morris Counties (Heritage Studies, 1985: 55).
Early settlers came into the current area of Fanwood from three sources. First, in 1684 a group of Scottish immigrants arrived after having landed at Amboy. These settlers, for whom Scotch Plains is named, took possession of the geographic area currently comprising Scotch Plains, Fanwood, and Plainfield (Clayton: 411). In addition to these early Scottish settlers, other settlers migrated to the area either from Elizabethtown to the east or Piscataway to the south (ibid.).
On January 27, 1794, Westfield Township (including modern Fanwood) separated from Elizabeth Township, but remained part of Essex County (Snyder: 242). By the early nineteenth century, the nearby village of Scotch Plains had started to develop, but Fanwood remained an area of farms.
Arrival of the Railroad
On February 9, 1831, the Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad received its legislative charter to develop a railroad through the area that is now Fanwood. This event would have a significant impact on the area's development. Although the railroad owners' primary goal from the beginning was to connect the Pennsylvania coal fields with the New York port area, the rail line — irrespective of coal — was to have a profound impact on the communities through which it passed. Construction on the line began in Elizabeth in 1832 and proceeded westward. By 1837, the line came through the present Fanwood area and was built to the north of its current alignment along what is currently Midway Avenue. In 1839, a railroad station (now a residence) was built at the intersection of the rail line and Martine Avenue (Baer, unpublished research).
The rail line reached Somerville by 1842, but economic problems forced the line to be sold at foreclosure in 1846. On February 26, 1847, new owners organized the Somerville and Easton Railroad Company. "On April 23, 1849, the Somerville & Easton absorbed the property of the old Elizabethtown & Somerville and changed its name to the Central Railroad of New Jersey" (CRRNJ Records, Company History: 1). John Owen Sterns, of Colkett & Sterns, the contractors who had assumed operating management of the railroad after foreclosure, effectively ran the company until his death in 1862 (ibid.). The new company continued to emphasize the goal of connecting "the City of New York with the rich mineral and agricultural regions of Pennsylvania" (CRRNJ 1852 Annual Report: 3). On July 2,1852, the Central Railroad of New Jersey (CRRNJ) opened its line to Phillipsburg.
The 1862 Meyer and Witzel Map of Union County indicates that the area of modern Fanwood was at that time still sparsely developed. As shown on the 1862 map, the closest developed area was the village of Scotch Plains. Therefore, the station stop was first known as the "Scotch Plains Station." In addition to the tracks down Midway Avenue, development in Fanwood was limited to the original depot and a few scattered homes.
Two events were to bring about change in the area's development. The first significant change was a realignment of the track through the Fanwood area. As early as 1852, the new CRRNJ company was discussing its concern with the only "heavy grade on the whole line" which was 40' to the mile near Scotch Plains coming east (CRRNJ 1852 Annual Report: 6). In 1854-1855, the CRRNJ worked to reduce the grade in the Fanwood area.
According to CRRNJ historian Christopher Baer, "the north track [in Fanwood] was opened in 1866 and the south track on December 6,1874, after which the Midway Avenue line was abandoned. The Midway Avenue station closed in December, 1874" (Baer, unpublished research).
Concurrent with this shift in alignment, the CRRNJ took steps to promote ridership along its line. Although John Taylor Johnston served as the president of the railroad company from 1848 until 1876 (Hall: 355), he remained a figurehead until the 1860s. After Sterns' death in 1862, Johnston "set the company's overall policy and public image...[He] conceived of the railroad as a civic betterment. Using the income from the coal trade, he developed a first class passenger service and openly courted the press for favorable publicity" (CRRNJ records, Accession 1869). The CRRNJ encouraged ridership on its line through physical improvements. New stations were built and old stations were improved. Johnston offered a prize annually to the station agent who produced the most attractive grounds (Malone:143).
The other major step in the effort to promote ridership was the formation of the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company. In 1867, the CRRNJ applied to the New Jersey Legislature for the charter to establish the development company. The goal of establishing the land improvement company was to create an entity which could sell the land which had been acquired when the CRRNJ widened the right-of-way to 100 feet. The Company explained that, through sale of this land, "a considerable profit can be realized, the right-of-way secured without charge, and the local business of the road much fostered and improved by the impetus given to the growth of the villages along the line" (CRRNJ 1867 Annual Report: 12-13).
The development company was approved on April 9, 1867. Although the company was legally separate from the CRRNJ, it was controlled by the same seven Board of Directors who controlled the parent CRRNJ: F.T. Frelinghuysen, William E. Dodge, Moses Taylor, John C. Green, John Taylor Johnston, Benjamin Williamson, and Adam Norrie. The Plainfield city directories from 1892,1905, and 1907 included a listing for the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company at 65 North Avenue, Fanwood. The 1892 directory also included the name of: "George Kyte, agent" as well as a separate listing for George Kyte under the "real estate" heading. Kyte was involved with the development company until his death in 1900.
In Fanwood, physical improvements had two components. First, in 1874, when the new line was complete, the CRRNJ built and landscaped a new westbound station (Fanwood's extant station). Second, and most significant, the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company (CNJLI Co.) proceeded with the development of the new residential community called "Fanwood Park."
David Ames' "Context and Guidelines for Evaluating America's Historic Suburbs for the National Register of Historic Places" identifies four main periods of American suburbanization: Railroad and Horsecar Suburbs from 1840s to the 1890s; Streetcar Suburbs from 1888 until the 1920s; Early Automobile Suburbs from the 1920s to 1945; and the Freeway Suburbs from 1945 to the 1960s.
Fanwood falls into the category of the late nineteenth century railroad suburbs.
The push to escape the cities was encouraged by the mid-nineteenth century Romantic Movement which "extolled the virtues of nature, and its picturesque architectural illustrations [which] sought to create romantic, naturalistic buildings and landscapes by reviving styles from the past thought to be more in tune with nature and hence more moral" (Ames). The picturesque development of Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey was designed in 1857. This development, widely acknowledged as the picturesque prototype, incorporated two new features: the curvilinear road and natural open space in the center. A second prominent example of a picturesque suburban development with curvilinear streets was Riverside, Illinois, designed in 1869 by Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. and Calvert Vaux. According to Ames, Riverside "established the template for the curvilinear subdivision."
Ames' paper on suburban communities emphasizes two points which are crucial for understanding the historic significance of Fanwood. First, Ames outlines the time period of "Olmsted Model" suburbs as being from the 1860s to the 1910s. The earliest prototype, Llewellyn Park, was designed in 1857. Therefore, Fanwood Park, designed prior to 1868, was a relatively early example of a picturesque, curvilinear community.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Fanwood had numerous prominent residents, including R.E. Vom Legn, superintendent of the Singer Sewing Machine Factory in Elizabeth; Dr. Brickton, Medical Director for New York Life Insurance; Carl Sayward, Assistant Vice-President of the United States Trust Company of New York; Stephen VanHoesen, president of Downing and Company, Inc.; William Brown, vice president of the Grimm School Book Company; Eugene Rau, executive in the Thompson Starrett Company; O.T. Brown, owner of the Samoset Laundry in Plainfield; and Paul B. Tuzo, architect (Cutrofello, et al.: 30).
The new community of Fanwood Park first appears on the 1868 "Map from Newark Bay to Washington Rock" which, although unavailable for copying, shows the newly planned area's curvilinear streets and uses the name of "Fanwood Park." Although it is not known what individuals designed the community, the layout is generally attributed to the CNJLI Co. and its agent, George Kyte (Cutrofello, et al.:26).
The CNJLI Co. owned 350 acres within the current area of Fanwood, including most of the Fanwood Park Historic District and outlying areas that were developed post-1930. Although it is only possible to speculate at this point why the CNJLI Co. owned so much real estate in the Fanwood area, it is very likely that the CRRNJ's need to change the track alignment in the Fanwood area led to the company acquiring property surrounding both alignments: the Midway Avenue alignment and the current alignment parallel to North Avenue. As shown on the 1906 map of Union County, the area south of the railroad tracks primarily consisted of commercial buildings. Residential development of this area began in the 1920s.
Other Communities Along the CRRNJ
The development of several towns along the rail line was linked to the CRRNJ. In 1867, John C. Rose, a claim agent with the CRRNJ, established the Roselle Land & Improvement Company. In 1867, the company took title to 181 acres of land (Hicks 1979, 2). Evona, now Clinton Avenue Station in Plainfield, was established in 1872, and a station was built in the same year. The area was originally planned as a residential suburb, and in 1882, was a hamlet of "some substantial dwellings" (Clayton). The Belvedere Land and Improvement Company established Netherwood, a district of Plainfield, in 1874 (The City of Plainfield proposal to the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Museum Commission: 6). The railroad station was built in the same year (Baer). Development included elegant mansions and the Netherwood Hotel, designed as a luxurious summer resort for wealthy city dwellers, and completed in 1878. In the 1890s, Garwood was established as an industrial town by the Garwood Land and Improvement Company, formed by John R. Maxwell, president of the CRRNJ from 1887-1901 (Union County Cultural and Heritage Commission: n.p.).
Fanwood and Dunellen were the two towns that were most directly related to the railroad in that they were developed by the CNJLI Co. Dunellen's development shares similarities with the development of Fanwood. As early as 1866, the railroad began to acquire land in the Dunellen area. The Central Land & Improvement Company established the village in 1868 on nearly 300 acres located north of the railroad tracks (Workers of the Federal Writers Project of the WPA: 23). However, while Fanwood's design followed the picturesque prototype, Dunellen's followed a traditional grid pattern that Ames associates with middle and working class housing.
Naming a Community
John Taylor Johnston, president of the CRRNJ at the time of Fanwood's development, was responsible for naming the community. Mrs. Emily de Forest, daughter of John Taylor Johnston, wrote that her father named the new villages along the rail line for family members and friends. She records, "Father and Mother had one or two very intimate friends, among them one Ellen Betts....He took her first name and added the prefix 'Dun' because he thought it would be a very euphonious name. That is how the name 'Dunellen' came into existence....My father even tried to name some of the stations after members of his family. For instance, my Mother's name was Fanny, and Fanwood was named for her. Evona was named for my youngest sister, Eva" (Workers of the Federal Writers Project of the WPA: 22).
In 1868, the CNJLI Co. and real estate developers began an active campaign to bring potential homeowners to Fanwood. The Constitutionalist, a local newspaper published in Plainfield, reported on January 23 of that year that "We understand that it is in contemplation to erect a large hotel in Fanwood Park, near where the new Railroad is to be located..." Later that year, the CNJLI Co. was advertising building sites through various agents for sale. A.D. Hope, General Agent, offered "A Home in the Country" from "one to twenty acres" in various towns along the CRRNJ line including Fanwood. In the same year, a separate realtor, A.D. Mellick, Jr., and Brothers, also began to offer "houses, lots, country seats, farms and sites" in Fanwood Park.
"Gala events" were held in Fanwood to attract prospective property owners to the town. These were not only advertising events, but treated as newsworthy events as well.
In 1873, the Central New Jersey Railroad published an advertising booklet called "Homes on the Central Railroad of New Jersey for New York Business Men" by George Catlin. For Fanwood, Catlin describes the "cosy" location of the station, the Green Brook, mountain roads and "thanks to skillful landscape engineers and its natural advantages, [Fanwood is] known as one of the most beautiful and attractive suburban dwelling places about New York." Other merits included a public school, two churches, a public hall, hook and ladder company, a "Good Templar," two hotels, many stores, and mills powered by the Green Brook. Current price for the property was $500 to $2,000 per acre. Included in the article is a map of Fanwood Park showing the area between Midway Avenue, Terrill, South Avenue, and Martine Avenue. He added that there are planned improvements that will bring Fanwood Park "directly upon the line, and place within a moment or two of the depot some of the most eligible villa sites that even the most fastidious purchaser could desire."
In 1881, the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Branches issued a "Travelers and Tourists Guide" which lists Fanwood as a destination with 21 trains daily to New York. "Fanwood is a most charming hamlet of fine residences, fittingly introduced by a well-ordered station and grounds." Included is a listing of hotels and boarding houses for visitors.
Woodford Clayton's 1882 Union County history reflects the importance of the CRRNJ and their promotional efforts. He described the area as "350 acres belonging to Central Land Improvement Company (sic) called 'Fanwood Park,' with serpentine roads well kept in order, offering great inducements to those in search of a desirable location." (Clayton:415).
In 1890, Gustav Kobbe's "The Central Railroad of New Jersey, an Illustrated Guidebook" listed Fanwood's attractions as "a park-like place of residences among beautifully laid out grounds and has an air of elegance and refinement. It boasts a fine club-house with bowling-alleys, billiard-room, etc. Taken all in all, Fanwood is a little gem." The following year, the Central Railroad of New Jersey issued a booklet "Why Not Own Your Own Home on the Central Railroad of New Jersey?" for the purpose of advertising its various properties available for development sites. The intent was to induce prospective homeowners to move their families from urban areas increasingly perceived as unhealthy and overcrowded. Fanwood is called one of the "delightful spots...where every breath of air purifies the lungs instead of poisoning them; where bright eyes and rosy cheeks will be the quick response to nature's all-powerful doctoring. And nature submits no doctor's bills after the cures."
After the turn of the century, advertisements about the area continued. In 1906, the "Suburbanite" magazine, another CRRNJ publication, described Fanwood Borough as "situated on high, rolling ground and is at all seasons of the year a beautiful and healthful place of residence. It is preferred as a place of residence by the commuter who wishes to live within a five minutes walk of the station."
As with so many other aspects of Fanwood's history, the story of its political and geographic boundaries is closely linked to the railroad. The CRRNJ's mid-nineteenth century track realignment laid the groundwork for competition between Fanwood Township (now Scotch Plains Township) and Fanwood Borough. The rivalry culminated in a late nineteenth century split between the two communities, with the CNJLI Co. agent, George Kyte, playing a key role in the push to create a new borough.
As is indicated on the 1862 Meyer and Witzel Map of Union County, the Village of Scotch Plains contained many more structures than the future Borough of Fanwood. Appropriately, before the emergence of Fanwood Park, the passenger station along the Midway Avenue alignment was at that time called the "Scotch Plains Station." When the railroad alignment in the area was shifted to the southeast, further away from the village of Scotch Plains, and the new community of Fanwood Park was laid out, the groundwork was laid for competition between the two communities.
On March 6, 1878, Fanwood Township was formed from Plainfield and Westfield Townships; however, the tension between the two areas of the Township continued. By the end of the nineteenth century, the community of Fanwood located near the new rail alignment was influenced by the so-called "Borough Craze." During this time period, many New Jersey towns divided from larger townships due to resource allocation issues and tax reasons.
In Fanwood Township, street lighting, macadamizing of roads, and trolley issues were all being debated, with the CNJLI Co. agent George Kyte at the center of the debate (Daily Press, 3/29/1895). George Kyte and Thomas Young, a fellow prominent Fanwood resident, were both advocates for street and lighting improvements for the village of Fanwood (The Times Supplement, 1970: F12). George Kyte was also reported to have pushed for a separate borough "for the avowed purpose of (among other things) giving to the trolley what the township committee refuses — the right of way without the condition of the 'loop'; and so take away the one chance that our sister village has had for twenty years to get in communication with the outside world" (Daily Press, February 25, 1895).
Although there was some criticism of the role that the CNJLI Co. and its agent, George Kyte, was playing in the formation of the borough, there was also praise. According to an editorial in the February 28, 1895 edition of the Plainfield Daily Press, "Sheriff Kyte...has done more to improve and help the township than any other five men here. Even now there is an open offer from him to spend two dollars of the Land Improvement Company's money for every one the township will spend towards improvements."
In May, 1895, residents in Fanwood Village voted to separate from the Township of Fanwood (now Scotch Plains). The population of the new Fanwood Borough was approximately 350 when it was set off from the township, and comprised an area of one square mile extending along both sides of the tracks of the Central Railroad of New Jersey (Honeyman: 469). Even once the new borough was created, George Kyte and the CNJLI Co. continued to play active roles in Fanwood's development. First, due to the amount of land owned by the Land Improvement Company, Mr. Kyte played a key role in the physical development of the new Borough. As an example, on April 21, 1896, the Central New Jersey Times reported on an agreement, arranged by Mr. Kyte, that the Fanwood Fire Department would lease from the CNJLI Co. the "Fire Company Room" under the hall of the Fanwood Club House. The CNJLI Co. was also responsible for several major donations to the new borough. The Fire Department's first hose cart and set of firefighting equipment, the post office, and the Fanwood Clubhouse itself were all gifts from the CNJLI Co. to the town. The CNJLI Co. also operated a blacksmith shop on South Avenue (Cutrofello, et al.: 2,23). Mr. Kyte is credited with obtaining "crushed stone and slag" from the CNJLI Co. in 1888 in order to improve the roads surrounding the freight house. "The good condition of Fanwood's roads and sidewalks was the result of Mr. Kyte's ability to secure the railroad's help in placing this material without cost to the tax payer." (Cutrofello, et al.: 22). In addition to his role as the agent of the CNJLI Co., George Kyte was also prominent in the new Borough as a councilman and mayor.
George Kyte died suddenly at the age of 54 in May of 1900, after having greatly influenced the development of the area. According to the Judicial and Civil History of New Jersey, "he was one of the earliest promoters of the present good road system in Union County." Thirty years after his death, a newspaper article referred to him as the "Father of Fanwood...He saw the future of Fanwood at an early age, and devoted almost his entire time to the place he loved so dearly. Mr. Kyte became identified with the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company, and through his untiring efforts the booming of Fanwood as a residential place the company began the development with six houses" (sic) (Courier-News, 2/15/1930).
Although Fanwood Park was laid out by 1868, and despite aggressive marketing, historic maps through the early twentieth century indicate that the area developed slowly. On the 1882 Robinson Atlas of Union County, there are only a few buildings located along Martine Avenue. By the time of the 1906 Bauer Map of Union County, additional structures had been built along side streets near Martine, especially on North Avenue, Tillotson Avenue, and Watson Road. A great deal of the land on the perimeters of the historic district had not yet been sub-divided and was marked "C.N.J.L.I. Co."
In 1923, the population in Fanwood was only about 760 but it was known as "a residence place...among the choicest in the middle section of the state." Its advantages were an "abundant water supply,...streets and roads are lined with fine shade trees...,two buildings and loan societies, a weekly newspaper, two public schools of the 8th grade, and Fanwood Civic Association" (Honeyman: 469).
In the late 1920s, Fanwood's population and the amount of housing construction dramatically increased. Due to the excellent train connection to Kearny, New Jersey, "seventy-five percent of the homes sold in Fanwood during the late 20s were purchased by Western Electric employees," who commuted to the Western Electric plant in Kearny (Cutrofello, et al.: 99). So many, in fact, that a direct train line was run from Fanwood to Kearny (Cutrofello, et al.: 32).
One of the main builders in Fanwood in the 1920s was the Cooperative Realty Corporation. This group was formed by the merger of four building and real estate companies that were active in Fanwood. Two persons involved in this formation were also employees of the Western Electric plant in Kearny (Ibid.).
From 1926 to 1928, the Cooperative Realty Corporation sold 55 houses.
At approximately the same time, the H. C. Lockwood Company issued a promotional booklet of homes it was building in Fanwood in conjunction with William A. Lambert, architect. The homes, typical early twentieth century houses, included Bungalows, Foursquares, and Colonial Revival houses.
By 1930, the population of Fanwood had reached 1,681 (Fitzgerald's: 222), and in 1934 a survey of private residences indicated that there were 541 homes (Borough of Fanwood, County of Union, State of New Jersey, Report for 1938, First Annual Report).
The Borough of Fanwood is historically significant as a late nineteenth century suburban community associated with the Central Railroad of New Jersey (CRRNJ). Although all communities along the eastern portion of the National Register eligible CRRNJ rail line were impacted by the rail line, Fanwood is noteworthy for its close ties to the railroad and its land development company, the Central New Jersey Land Improvement Company.
The CRRNJ and the land development company established and contributed to the naming of Fanwood, laid out the curvilinear road system of the Fanwood Park area surrounding the train station, participated in the effort to separate Fanwood Borough from Fanwood Township (Scotch Plains), promoted the area as an attractive place to live, and led to the residential development of the community. The Fanwood Park Historic District is therefore significant as a picturesque railroad suburban community with representative architectural styles from the late nineteenth century through the early twentieth century.
Ames, David L. "Context and Guidelines for Evaluating America's Historic Suburbs for the National Register of Historic Places." September 14, 1998.
"Annual Report for the Year 1938, Borough of Fanwood, County of Union, State of New Jersey."
Annual reports for the Central Railroad of New Jersey, for the years 1852, 1853, 1855, 1856, 1867, and 1872.
Baer, Christopher T. unpublished research.
Barton-Wand City of Plainfield Directories (on file at the Plainfield Public Library).
Borough of Fanwood Historic Preservation Commission. "May 21,1995 Historic Walking Tour."
Borough of Fanwood Natural Resources Inventory, 1991.
Central New Jersey Times, [Plainfield, New Jersey] January, 1869; September 29, 1870, p.1 & 7; October 13, 1870, p.l; August 16,1877; April 21, 1896.
Central Railroad Company of New Jersey Records, "Company History," Accession 1869. On file at the Hagley Museum.
Central Railroad of New Jersey. Why Not Own Your Own Home on the Line of the Central Railroad of New Jersey? 1891.
Central Railroad of New Jersey and Branches, Travelers and Tourists Guide. 1881.
City of Plainfield proposal to the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Museum Commission.
Clayton, W. Woodford, ed. History of Union and Middlesex Counties, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts and Peck, 1882.
Constitutionalist, [Plainfield, New Jersey] January 23,1868.
Cutrofello, Fred and Howard Drewes et al. Fanwood Fire Company and Borough of Fanwood A Pictorial History, 1990.
"Fanwood Gets Cross." Daily Press. February 25, 1895.
Fitzgerald, Josephine A. Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, 1937.
"George Kyte Was Ardent Booster In Former Days", Courier-News, February 15,1930.
Hall, Henry, ed. America's Successful Men of Affairs, Vol. I. New York: The New York Tribune, 1895.
H.C. Lockwood Co. "Fanwood, New Jersey" booklet, n.d.
Heidingfeld and Mulholland, publishers. Union County Directories.
Heritage Studies. Historic Sites Survey of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Princeton, N.J.: October, 1984; revised September, 1985.
Hicks, J. Maurice. Roselle, New Jersey, Site of Thomas Alva Edison's First Village Plant. Roselle: Roselle Historical Society, 1979.
Honeyman, A. Van Doren. History of Union County, New Jersey, 1664-1923. New York and Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1923.
"It's Fanwood's 75th Birthday, 1895-1970." Special Supplement to The Times, Thursday, September 10, 1970. (Copy on file at the Historical Society of Scotch Plains and Fanwood).
Kling, Herman. "Future Plans of Co-operative Realty Corporation of America outlined by Herman Kling" paper, n.d.
Kobbe, Gustav. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, An Illustrated Guidebook. 1890.
Lee, Francis Bazley. History of Trenton, New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: John L. Murphy, Printer, 1895.
Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. X. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933.
Nancy L. Zerbe Historic Preservation Consulting, Inc. "Fanwood Historic District Survey," March 1998.
Richard Hunter and Associates. Historic research for the Fanwood Carriage House, 1997.
Ricord, F.W. History of Union County, New Jersey. Newark, NJ: East Jersey History Company, 1897.
Snyder, John. P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries, 1606-1968. Trenton, NJ. Borough of Geology and Topography, 1969.
"The Trolley Coming." Daily News, March 29, 1895.
"There's Little Room Left in Fanwood's Square Mile." Courier-News, Wednesday, September 9, 1970.
"Trolley Still Deferred." Plainfield News, February 2, 1895.
Union County Cultural and Heritage Commission. Union County Historic Sites Survey, 1981.
Whitehead, John. The Judicial and Civil History of New Jersey. Boston: Boston History Co., 1897.
Workers of the Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration, State of New Jersey. The Story of Dunellen 1887-1937. Dunellen: Dunellen Golden Jubilee, Inc., 1937.
† Nancy L. Zerbe, Erika Webb and Catherine Bell, ARCH2, Inc., Fanwood Park Historic District, Fanwood, Union County, New Jersey, nomination document, 2003, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.