Andover Center Historic District
The Andover Center Historic District [†] was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
The Andover Center Historic District is situated in the Hop River Valley at the crossroads of present-day US Route 6 (a former state highway) and Hebron Road (State Route 316). The Andover Center Historic District extends south along the latter road, and includes Boston Hill Road (State Route 603), which enters the village from the west, upper and lower Center Street, and Cider Mill Road, which follows the course of Staddle Brook, a tributary of the Hop River.
There have been some changes to road patterns in the Andover Center Historic District. Historic maps show that the Hartford to Norwich turnpike once passed through the village along Center Street and upper Hebron Road. The railroad right-of-way and the rerouting of the turnpike by the state, and the later construction of US Route 6 closed off the west end of Center Street to traffic, thus limiting direct vehicular access to the northwestern part of the district. However, this area, which contains the village church and the library, is still geographically contiguous.
The Andover Center Historic District contains 98 resources, of which 67 (68 percent) contribute to its historic and/or architectural significance. The relatively low percentage of contributing resources is partly due to the fact that nearly half of the outbuildings were erected after 1950. However, the vast majority of the principal resources are contributing, and include 32 historic dwellings, an oil mill, and a number of civic and religious facilities, several historic bridges, and two cemeteries.
The oldest surviving building in the Andover Center Historic District is the Phelps-Bingham House (40 Hebron Road), which sits on a rise above the west side Hebron Road. The restored barn across the street remains associated with this property. One of five eighteenth-century Colonials in the district, the house consists of the original main block, a double cube only one-room deep, and a large rear two-story central chimney ell, with a low rear wing. The principal facade features a later Greek Revival doorway surround, but has retained its multi-light transom and double-leaf paneled doors. A similar but simpler doorway is found on the facade gable end of 1749 Samuel Lockwood House on the north side of Route 6 (349 Route 6). This Colonial may have been turned when it was moved to the west to make way for the library in 1927 (Burnap Skinner Memorial Library, 355 Route 6).
Two center-chimney Colonials built in the 1760s are nearly identical in form and have two-bay end elevations. The first, the Lamb-Buell House (36 Boston Hill Road) sets back from the south side of Boston Hill Road and is surrounded by numerous restored and new outbuildings, including a c.1800 oil mill. A shingled version, the David Townsend House, is located to the west and across the road (69 Boston Hill Road). It displays the more conventional paired facade windows of the later 1700s, which now contain six-over-six, early nineteenth-century replacement sash. A more formal late Georgian Colonial was built by Elijah House at 2 Center Street in 1784. It features a slightly projecting center pavilion and a formal doorway flanked by pilasters, capped by a shallow projecting cornice. The second-floor pavilion window apparently retains its original 12-over-12 sash; most of the rest of the windows were fitted with two-over-two sash in the late 1800s.
The cemetery near the center of the district also dates from the eighteenth century (Old Andover Burying Ground). It contains simple rectangular and tombstone-arched grave markers aligned in rows, and a few table stones. Many headstones display period iconography, ranging from images of death heads to winged angels. This relatively small half-acre burying ground, which is bordered by dry-laid stone walls, remained in use until the New Andover Cemetery was laid out on the church grounds on Route 6.
Most of the 15 nineteenth-century houses in the Andover Center Historic District have gabled facades. One of the earliest is an unusual Federal style cottage built in 1823 for Ransford Button at the corner of Cider Mill and Hebron roads (25 Hebron Road). The typical attenuated Federal design of the doorway incorporates a denticulated frieze. Among its other features are narrow paneled corner pilasters and a deep frieze on the side elevations (now interrupted by a wall dormer on the north), as well as full-height, first-floor facade windows. The latter feature may suggest that there once was a porch at this level. When Button built his second house next door in 1841, he employed the Greek Revival style, again in an unconventional manner (27 Hebron Road). Fluted columns support the second-floor overhang, creating a recessed porch, which shelters a Greek Revival doorway and tall first-floor windows. Another Greek Revival cottage on Ryan Road on the west side of the district was built by Isaac Newton W. Sill in 1848 (7 Ryan Road). Despite its size, it is fully detailed with bold corner pilasters, deep frieze boards, and a fully articulated doorway with sidelights.
More conventional two-story Greek Revival farmhouses were erected by members of the Bingham family in this period (John F. Bingham House, 55 Hebron Road; George Bingham House, 70 Hebron Road). Both have the pedimented gables with multi-paned windows that are the hallmark of this style, and each has a two-story wing. The doorway of the George Bingham House, with its high frieze and projecting cornice, is the more fully developed.
Several contemporary houses in the Andover Center Historic District demonstrate the rural persistence of the colonial form and plan well into the nineteenth-century. They include a Colonial/Federal style house erected at 83 Hebron Road in 1849. The door surround with its narrow pilasters and high frieze is a very late manifestation of the Federal influence. Changes to this house include the exterior end chimney, the bay window, and the rear porch addition. The depth of the eave overhangs suggests that the roof has been replaced. Despite its colonial appearance, in the Bazaleel Hutchinson House at 8 Center Street, the lower roof pitch and rectangular gable window, which are more typical of the Greek Revival period, tend to confirm a construction date of 1839. The unusual doorway exhibits a narrow surround with corner blocks.
Two Carpenter Gothic style houses were built in the Andover Center Historic District in the 1850s by the Post family (S. Jane Post House, 11 Center Street; Bissell E. Post House, 10 Cider Mill Road). Both exhibit the board-and-batten siding and decorative scalloped bargeboards that are so characteristic of this style. Although they exhibit some minor differences in plan, essentially these houses combine elements found in three more vernacular farmhouses of this period on Hebron Road, including a one-and-one-half story cottage form, paired facade gable windows, and a recessed wing. Among them is the James Marsh House of 1842 (96 Hebron Road), in which the main block has a two-over-three-bay gabled facade and shallow eave windows on the side elevations.
A Colonial Revival style Cape at 16 Boston Hill Road built about 1910 is one of several gambrel-roofed buildings in the Andover Center Historic District, including the cross-gambrel barn on this property. The shed-roofed dormers at either end of the house roof are original; the middle gabled dormer is later addition. The open recessed Colonial Revival porch sheltered by the forward sweep of the gambrel roof is reminiscent of the Bungalow style also popular in this period, represented in the Andover Center Historic District by one 1932 example (67 Hebron Road).
Among the cluster of institutional buildings on Route 6 on the northwestern edge of the Andover Center Historic District is the Greek Revival style Congregational Church at 359 Route 6. Erected in 1833, it displays the conventional ecclesiastical facade of the period, a recessed columned porch surmounted by a full pediment. The middle columns frame a single doorway. It is likely that the upper stages of steeple are replacements. The adjoining chapel, a simple gable-roofed building sheathed with clapboard is set farther back from the highway and faces the east side of the church. Behind the chapel to the north is the New Andover Cemetery, which displays a full range of nineteenth-century gravestone types, including a number of stone obelisks.
The rest of surviving institutional architecture in the Andover Center Historic District includes the Andover Town Hall (1 Hebron Road), an 1893 wood-frame building with a gabled facade, which sits on a rise above the south side of street. It currently houses the Andover Historical Society Museum. Andover Center School of 1903 at 35 Center Street, now used as residence, and the Burnap Skinner Memorial Library of 1927 (355 Hebron Road) are the only twentieth-century institutions in the Andover Center Historic District. The latter building, constructed of brick in the Colonial Revival style, features a pedimented doorway and tall, round-arched windows with keystones.
Today a quiet suburban community, Andover Center Historic District reflects and embodies the historical development of a small rural crossroads village in the Eastern Uplands of Connecticut. During its transition from a separate church society to the institutional center of an independent town, the village became the local market center for a small-scale agrarian-based economy, an evolution reflected in the rural ambience and historic architectural character of the district. The collective significance of the Andover Center Historic District architecture, which is primarily domestic in nature, is enhanced by fine representative examples of the Colonial, Greek Revival, and Carpenter Gothic styles. The rarity of an associated building type in the district, as well as the exceptional artistic quality of the old burying ground, also add to the overall significance of this cultural landscape.
Historical Background and Significance
Andover evolved from the towns of Hebron, Lebanon, and Coventry, all established around the first decade of the eighteenth century. Although most of Andover's 15 square miles was carved out of Hebron and Coventry, it also included Lebanon Crank, the northeast corner of that town. The 46 petitioners for original ecclesiastical society were outlivers on the fringes of all three communities, whose borders intersected in what became Andover Center. Many were descendants of first settlers who had come to the area from other towns in colony, such as Enfield and Windsor. But a notable number came from older towns in Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island. Among the prime movers for a new church society, or parish in 1743, were the House and Sprague families (the latter from Cape Cod), some of the first settlers in the Hop River Valley in the early 1700s. Since the Congregational Church was the established religion in the Connecticut Colony, the customary memorials, or petitions, were sent to the General Assembly, citing the hardships of travelling great distances to attend church services in their respective towns. When approval was finally granted in 1747, the new parish of Andover assumed all the privileges and responsibilities of a duly constituted Congregational society.
The first meetinghouse was erected in the Andover Center Historic District between present-day Center Street and Boston Hill Road, on land donated by Aaron Phelps, a parish petitioner and descendant of Hebron settlers who had married into the Sprague family. In addition to his large farmstead, Phelps had one of the first mills on Staddle Brook and also donated land to develop the road to Hebron, which ran through his property. The Reverend Samuel Lockwood, settled as the first minister in 1748, received a 100-acre farm. Until Lockwood's house was completed in 1749 on the site of the present library at 355 Route 6, he boarded at the home of Obidiah Newcomb, one of the Coventry petitioners. Captain in the local train band (militia), established in 1748 by the General Assembly, Newcomb had come here with his family from Martha's Vineyard in 1713. Since education was then under parish control, four school districts were established in 1769 to serve the widely dispersed population. As evidenced by the fact that the church building was not completed for almost two decades, Andover was a relatively poor community, with limited sources of tax revenue. Although the parish collected taxes to support the ministry and education, property taxes were paid to the parent towns. Hoping to rectify that situation, the parish applied to become a separate town in 1756. Predictably this first bid for political independence was denied. Indeed, almost a century passed before Andover was incorporated as a separate town in 1848.
Among the other new people who moved into the district prior to the Revolution were Benjamin Lamb and David Townsend, whose farmhouses still stand on Boston Hill Road (Lamb-Buell House, 36 Boston Hill Road; David Townsend House, 69 Boston Hill Road). Major Jonathan Hutchinson Buell, who bought the Lamb House in 1799, and Townsend pioneered in the production of flax, linen, and linseed oil, a valuable commodity in this period. Buell, who at one time had 17 people living and working on his farmstead, had dammed a pond on his property and built an oil mill about 1800. Farm diaries record that many bushels of flaxseed grown by Townsend were processed there. It is likely that the attic looms in both their houses were used for weaving linen, as well as woolen cloth. With his entrepreneurial approach to farming, Buell probably engaged in trade with other towns in the region in the early 1800s, especially after the Hartford-Norwich Turnpike was laid out. It dipped down to pass right through the center, running along the upper part of present-day Center Street and Hebron Road.
Few farmers in town were as market oriented as Buell. In fact, until commercial dairying was introduced late in the nineteenth century, most men were subsistence farmers. Surplus farm products were traded for manufactured goods, which supported a small merchant class. Some supplemented their income by logging, or engaging in farm-related occupations such as cooper, butcher, shoemaker, blacksmith, or wagonmaker. Such an integrated internal economy was common in the Eastern Uplands, where the rolling terrain and glacial till soils were more suitable for pasturage and orchards, or grain and forage crops.
Other socio-economic factors worked together to maintain the status quo, particularly the shortage of land. By the nineteenth century the initially large family holdings in Andover had been divided among several generations and, with land elsewhere in Connecticut at a premium, grandsons were leaving for the frontier of Vermont and upper New York State. Those who remained in Andover inherited relatively small farms. Of the total amount of real estate recorded in the 1850 federal census of the town, valued at $183,930, on average, individual farms were worth less than $2000, an amount that included buildings as well as land. Even the combined holdings of the Binghams, by far the largest landowners in the village, did not exceed $6,900.
By mid-century Andover Center, with a population of 500, was a station on the Hartford, Providence, & Fishkill line, with a stationhouse right on Center Street (no longer extant). For most communities the arrival of the railroad was a transforming event. All over Connecticut, towns with such direct access to major markets developed into bustling commercial and industrial centers. Towns in the region on major rivers, most notably Willimantic, attracted major capital investment and became manufacturing centers, but Andover, with its limited waterpower, did not have this potential. Although there was a paper mill on the Skunkamaug River in the 1830s, for most of the nineteenth century, local industry remained agrarian based, with grist- and sawmills on Staddle Brook and other streams in town.
The commercial development of the center really began with Elijah House, a descendant of a prominent family from Rhode Island. He was the grandson of Nathaniel and the son of John House, who once lived west of the center on the present-day Route 6. While local historians record that Elijah was bankrupted by giving credit to the French when they camped in Lebanon during the war in 1781, he apparently recovered by 1784, the year he built a rather grand Georgian Colonial on a two-acre lot from his father (2 Center Street). Located on the turnpike overlooking the crossroads, it was an ideal commercial location. In fact, Elijah was involved in several business enterprises there soon after he inherited most of his father's property in Hebron and Coventry in 1801. In addition to a merchant shop, Elijah had a slaughterhouse and yard, and soap making equipment, all of which he leased to his son, Simon, in 1815, along with his privilege at the cooper's shop for trying tallow and lard. When Elijah sold several parcels to Leonard Hendee in 1819, this then nine-acre property included house and store, as well as several outbuildings.
Hendee, whose family came to Coventry from Windham, was the first depot master, and it is said that some of the Irish laborers who laid the tracks through town boarded at his house. The railroad station was located between the tracks and upper Center Street. Right across the way was the requisite railroad hotel, which was run by E. W. Webster. The hotel and its associated livery stable burned to the ground in 1916. (The present house on that site was built about 1920; 25 Center Street). Oddly enough, even though Hendee was a Baptist, he donated land for the new Congregational Church, which was erected on the turnpike in the early 1830s (359 Route 6). After Hendee's death in 1859, his house passed down to Martha, his daughter by his second wife, who had married William Cook, a hatter, in 1852. In 1866 Martha deeded over the house to her half-sister, Julia, and her husband, Francis Porter, and in 1874, a few years after her mother died, the Cooks moved to the Marsh House at the south end of the district at 96 Hebron Road.
Although there is no evidence that Hendee was a merchant, he was indirectly responsible for much of the commercial and residential development near the depot. For instance, in 1839 he sold a two-acre lot at 7 Center Street to Bazaleel Hutchinson, who was listed in the vital records as a grocer, butcher, and farmer. Other commercial buildings may also have been built on Hendee property, such the one next door at #4 Center Street, which by 1869 also served as the post office, and possibly the Jasper A. Fitch House and store across the street. Since Fitch's father was a shoemaker, to learn the business he probably was apprenticed to his uncle, William, a merchant in Hebron. Frederick Sackett, a later storekeeper there, came here from Rhode Island, was still in business in 1900.
In 1832 Hendee sold one acre to David Tuttle, whose house was standing on the property when Hendee bought it back the following year (28 Hebron Road). In 1850 Hendee sold the place to Genubeth Strong, a wagonmaker, who presumably had a shop on the premises. Genubeth in turn, carved out a quarter-acre house lot and sold it to David Post in 1854. David's new bride, Sarah Jane Jones, had lived with the Strongs before her marriage and the property was put in her name. David worked with his brother Bissell, who first dammed the brook (Bissell E. Post Dam) for a sawmill and turning shop, which may account for the level of detail of their similar Carpenter Gothic houses (S. Jane Post House, 11 Center Street; Bissell E Post House, 10 Cider Mill Road). The Post enterprises, just two of the five mill sites on Staddle Brook by 1869, prospered until the 1880s, when their high stone dam in the gorge blew out in a major flood. One or more of the several carpenters in town by mid-century may have worked on the Posts' dwellings, or updated older houses with new doorways, like the one on the Phelps-Bingham House (40 Hebron Road). Among them were Deacon Isaac W. Sill, a joiner from Lyme, who bought the Lamb-Buell House at 36 Boston Hill Road, and his son, Isaac Newton W. Sill, who built his own cottage on 40 acres at 7 Ryan Road.
Much of the rest of the land in the center belonged to the Bingham family, descendants of Eleazar Bingham, who bought 112 acres on both sides of Hebron Road with the Aaron Phelps House from the estate in 1750. The property stayed in the family, passing down to Cyrus Bingham, Eleazar's grandson, along with water privileges on Staddle Brook. Cyrus' daughter, Mary Bingham, owned a sawmill there, which was run by her husband Hiram Brown; they lived nearby, presumably on family land. Mary's cousin, John Bingham (son of Harvey), had another sawmill there. John also received a farm where he built his house in 1840 (55 Hebron Road), and his brother (?) George built his house across the road (70 Hebron Road).
Apparently intent upon preserving the integrity of the family holdings (which today still exceed 55 acres), Cyrus sold only small lots to outsiders, including one acre on Staddle Brook to Bissell Post for his mill and house. An even smaller parcel (33 square rods) "near the graveyard" was sold to Ransford Button, who built his two small houses there (25 and 27 Hebron Road). Button, who came here from New York State in 1823, listed himself as a merchant in the 1850 federal census with only $1000 in real estate. By then he was living with a wife, three children, and his mother-in law in his second cottage. There is some indirect evidence that the earlier cottage became a store and housed the village post office, at least until Button became the depot master about 1860.
Rail transportation became more important after the Civil War, when the rapid growth of cities in the Northeast produced new markets for local products. The most significant was the advent of commercial dairying. Sixty-seven local dairy farmers were shareholders in a cooperative creamery to make butter, which was shipped by rail to cities as far away as Boston and New York for almost 30 years. The quality of this product was recognized by the award of a bronze medal at the Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893. The c.1886 building used for this purpose was demolished in 2002 (4 Hebron Road). The pace of logging stepped up to meet the demand for sawn timber, also shipped by rail. In fact, so many board feet of lumber were processed at local mills that Andover's forests were completely denuded by 1900. Freight services were also used by Frederick Case, an established paper manufacturer in Manchester, at his new fiberboard mill on the Hop River, which by 1900 was the town's major employer. Given the minimal waterpower potential there, it is likely that Case relied on coal-fired steampower for his factory. Coal stored at the depot also provided a new source of heat for Andover's homes.
Institutional and residential development in the center generated by the improved economy included the first town hall built in 1893 on land donated by the Post family (1 Hebron Road). It was a cooperative venture with the Andover Grange, which met in the building for the next 100 years. Up to this time, town and Grange meetings were held in the Congregational Chapel, which also once housed the village school and the library. The new Center School, which opened in the district in 1903, needed an addition by 1915 (35 Center Street). The library association, first organized in 1885, had a fine new building at 355 Route 6 in 1927. As automobiles replaced horse-drawn vehicles, highways, including Route 6, were improved by the state; some village roads, paved for the first time, passed over existing nineteenth-century stone bridges in the district. Garages appeared on many properties in the district, especially alongside new houses built in the early 1900s. By 1938 the new volunteer fire department remodeled the old Sackett Store on Center Street, which served as a firehouse until 1990 (15 Center Street).
Rapid population growth and institutional decentralization characterized the post World War II era. The population, which had steadily declined through 1910 to 371, recovered by 1940 to 560 (essentially the mid-nineteenth century level), and doubled in the next decade. Many services provided in the center were moved into new buildings on School Street south of the district. Among the first was a new school to replace Center School by 1950. Andover joined Hebron and Marlborough to build RHAM, a new regional high school on Hebron Road in 1957. Town government was restructured and relocated into offices in a new municipal building on School Street in 1963. That same year, the post office moved into a new building on Route 6, where commercial strip development had already begun. With railroads closing all over the state, all freight and passenger service in Andover ended in 1973. Although the tracks were taken up and the right-of-way taken over by the state as a recreational trail, two associated structures remain along the right-of-way, the 1842 arched-stone railroad bridge over Staddle Brook, and one of the later stone abutments (on Hebron Road). As part of the Route 6 project, all the town's war memorials were relocated to a small new landscaped green at the northern entrance to the district (Andover Green). New uses were found for historic municipal buildings in the district in the 1990s: the town hall became a museum run by the Andover Historical Society, which was organized in 1979, and the firehouse was converted to a meeting place and senior center.
While every cultural landscape tells a story, rooted in space and time, this adage is especially true in the Andover Center Historic District, a cohesive microcosm of Andover's 250-year heritage. Generations have imposed order upon the once primal landscape, clearing fields and forest, and building roads, bridges, boundary walls and power dams. Since shelter for families and farm animals was a prime concern, much of the evolution of the Andover Center Historic District can be read in the spatial interrelationship and orientation of the buildings, which reveal their age through form, function, and architectural style...elements that document every stage of development. Colonial farmhouses, some still set well back on large parcels bordered by stone walls, vistas of open land, and old gravestones of settlers in the burying ground tell of modest agrarian beginnings; later clusters of early nineteenth-century houses reflect an evolving farming and merchant economy. Institutional buildings added to the streetscapes embody the more politically aware modern community at the turn of the century. Harbingers of future residential growth are found in new houses interspersed amongst the older housing stock in the early 1900s. And finally the story is completed by new functions found for historic civic buildings as well as the newer suburban type of homes of the modern period.
The most evocative emblem of the colonial period is the Phelps-Bingham House, a commanding presence in the Andover Center Historic District (40 Hebron Road). Exceptionally well-preserved, this classic example of the double-cube form, embellished by a fine Greek Revival doorway, proclaims the land wealth of its early owners. The compatible rear addition and the restored barn across the road, along with the retention of much of the original acreage, add to the individual significance of this property. The rural historic character of the district is further enhanced by the presence of the Lamb-Buell and Townsend houses 36 and 69 Boston Hill Road, superior representative examples of the so-called Connecticut "Plain" style, which had evolved in the late colonial period. It is remarkable that this style came to predominate, given that many early Andover settlers were familiar with a wide range of New England building traditions. That the merchant class also utilized the colonial form in Late Georgian period after the Revolution is demonstrated by the Elijah House House at the corner of Hebron Road and Center Street (2 Center Street). Although not quite as well-preserved as the earlier houses in the Andover Center Historic District, it exhibits the characteristic elements of this style in its pedimented pavilion and center-hall plan.
The collective significance of the Andover Center Historic District's nineteenth-century domestic architecture is enhanced by similarities of form and plan. From the Federal and Greek Revival periods through to the vernacular expressions of the late 1800s, houses and cottages present their gabled facades to the road, adding a degree of coherence and continuity to the streetscapes. Several display notable levels of style and craftsmanship, such as the exceptionally well-preserved Greek Revival cottage at 7 Ryan Road (Isaac Newton W. Sill House), or the nearly identical, well-preserved Carpenter Gothics built by the Post family (S. Jane Post House, 11 Center Street; Bissell E. Post House, 10 Cider Mill Road).
Two historic resources stand out for their unique contributions to the overall significance of the Andover Center Historic District. The Buell oil mill, the oldest of the associated outbuildings on the Lamb-Buell property, is a rare survival of a building type from the proto-industrial period now almost lost to history. The Old Andover Burying Ground, the last resting place for many settler families, has considerable artistic significance as a collection of the work of several distinguished regional stone carvers of the period. Among them are Andover's own Jonathan and Amasa Loomis (descendants of Nathaniel Loomis of Coventry), the latter the carver of the Mary Wheeler stone of 1792. The renowned Collins family of carvers is represented by the Aaron Phelps stone of 1750, attributed to Julius Collins, and several examples of the early work of Zerubbael Collins of Columbia. Known for his distinctive curvilinear headstones with upswept angel wings and organic motifs, in 1778 this master carver emigrated to Vermont.
Andover, Connecticut. Burnap-Skinner Memorial Library. History files.
Atlas of Hartford and Tolland Counties. Hartford: Baker & Tilden, 1869.
Brass Philip D. " A Survey of Early Andover Homes Dating from Circa 1713-1856." Revised by Andover Historical Society, 1994.
Clouette, Bruce and Allan Phillips. "Photographic Documentation: Andover Creamery and Andover Center Historic District." Connecticut Department of Transportation, State Project No.1-101, 2002.
Federal Census, MSS. 1850-1900.
Hartford, Connecticut. Connecticut State Library. "Barbour Abstracts of Church Records in Connecticut."
(A) History of the Ecclesiastical Society and 1st Congregational Church, Andover, Connecticut, 1747-1972. Church History Committee, 1972.
Spencer, Linda S. Historic Preservation in Connecticut. Vol.II. Eastern Uplands: Historical and Architectural Overview and Management Guide. Connecticut Historical Commission, 1993.
Tashjian, Dickran and Ann Tashjian. Memorials for Children of Change: The Art of Early New England Stonecarving. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1974, pp. 100-106.
Yeomans. Scott. The Town of Andover 1848-1998. Andover, 1998.
† Adapted from: Jan Cunningham, Cunningham Preservation Associates, LLC, Andover Center Historic District, Tolland, CT, nomination document, 2002, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.