First settled by Joseph Wheaton from Sekonk, Rhode Island, the village became noted as a major marble-quarrying site. The first stone-saw mill in the state was located in the village center and eventually 21 mills of this type were operating in the nineteenth century along the East Aspetuck River, the outflow from Lake Waramaug. The locally produced stone was highly prized and in peak years about 30,000 feet of marble were sold annually throughout New England and the East Coast and into the Midwest as far as Ohio.
Marbledale is home to Saint Andrews Episcopal Church, a significant example of a vernacular country church which may be one the first expressions of the Gothic Revival style in rural Connecticut. Exceptionally well-preserved, it derives significance from its late 19th-century appointments, including the stained-glass windows and furnishings. The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.