Pine Meadow Historic District
The Pine Meadow Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2011, The Gombach Group.
The Pine Meadow Historic District encompasses most of the historic nineteenth century village of Pine Meadow. Situated in the Farmington River Valley in the northeast corner of the Town of New Hartford, the village is roughly triangular in shape, bounded on the north and east by a large bend in the west branch of the river. A wooded ridgeline, which rises almost 750 above the level floor of the valley, extends along the long southwest side. These physical boundaries also generally define the limits of the Pine Meadow Historic District. Main Street, the principal road, runs through the district in a northerly direction. It is generally paralleled by secondary streets, including Church Street on the west and Wicket Street and No. Ten Street on the east. Contained within the Pine Meadow Historic District is the local New Hartford Historic District, centered around Chapin Park at the intersection of Main and Church streets.
Since natural barriers left little room for expansion or modern development, Pine Meadow appears much as it did in the late nineteenth century. From the historic maps of 1874 and 1878 it is apparent that less than a dozen historic houses have been lost, with a number on the east side of the district due to periodic flooding of the river. Except for a group of modern houses and the 1951 Pine Meadow School built on Wicket Street (outside the district), most of the remaining open land was in a floodplain and never developed. Some changes are related to the industrial development and decline of the village. For example, all that is left of the railroad that once ran along the base of the hills on the west is the abandoned track bed that terminates in a brownstone abutment for a bridge that once crossed Main Street on the north, before continuing across the river to New Hartford Center. The railroad depots at either end of the district also are gone. Of the two other historic bridges that once spanned the Farmington River, one was a covered wooden bridge at the east end of Black Bridge Road; its replacement is now closed. The other, which once provided direct access to the factory complex at the southeast corner of the village, is no longer extant.
The Pine Meadow Historic District contains 161 resources, of which 121 (75%) contribute to its historic character. Of the 94 principal resources, 80 (85%) are contributing. Primarily residential, they include more than 30 workers' houses or tenements. There is also a church, a school (now used as a residence), two industrial buildings, and three sites, Chapin Park, Pine Meadow Cemetery, both on Main Street near the middle of the district, and an industrial site. A number of the houses have contributing associated barns, garages, or other outbuildings. Of the 40 non-contributing resources, nine are modern residential or commercial construction and five are older buildings that are so altered that they no longer convey their historic character. The remainder are modern secondary structures, such as garages or sheds.
Since the historic development of the district took place generally in the mid-to-late nineteenth century, the architectural styles of that period are represented. Although the Greek Revival predominates, with almost half of the houses influenced by this style, there are a few examples of Federal, Gothic Revival, Italianate, and Queen Anne. Another smaller group consists of houses built in the late nineteenth century, which, while typically more limited in their stylistic detail, have the more vertical massing and steeper roofs characteristic of that period. The few houses built after 1900 are mainly Colonial Revival in style. Most houses are wood-framed and have a gable-to-street orientation, but there also are seven historic masonry structures, four houses and three outbuildings. At least 12 of the historic outbuildings are barns, some in use as garages, and there are several carriage houses.
Chapin Park, which is slightly more than an acre in size, occupies an elongated triangle near the center of the Pine Meadow Historic District between Main Street on the east and Church Street on the west. Although today its mature trees, a few possibly survivors of the original plantings, are randomly distributed, the park was originally landscaped more formally with regular rows of trees, especially along its bordering streets. There is a flagpole and a World War II memorial at its north corner.
The historic architecture produced by several generations of industrialists in the vicinity of the park represents the most stylish in the Pine Meadow Historic District. Facing the park from the west are the Philip E. Chapin House (55 Church Street) and St. John's Episcopal Church. The Chapin House is a High Victorian Italianate style cube-form building with a square belvedere at the center of its shallow-pitched hipped roof and a lower two-story L-shaped wing with a hipped roof at the rear. The walls are clapboard, except for the central facade bay and the belvedere, which are flushboard, and the roof is sheathed with fish-scale slate shingles of polychrome. The tall two-and-one-half story main block has an open veranda on three sides that features Tuscan posts with capitals and panelled bases, At the center of the three-bay facade is a full-height pedimented pavilion with round-arched windows at the second and third story. The main entrance with double-leaf doors and a transom is set within a round-arched opening, the whole enframed in rectangular molding. Other architectural features include segmental-arched hood molds which surmount paired windows, with the arch form repeated at the eaves of the belvedere roof. A wide attic frieze is detailed with wood brackets with drops and punctuated with small paired round-arched windows. Larger round-arched windows are paired on each face of the belvedere. A companion carriage house with simpler detail is found to the southwest rear .
St. John's Episcopal Church to the south, executed in the Gothic Revival style, has an elaborate two-stage tower and spire at its north corner and a tall gabled wing on the south. Each face of the octagonal base of the pyramidal spire is delineated by a steeply pitched pediment with a louvered lancet-arched opening. Hood molds over lancet-arched windows and doors are found throughout. On each side of the nave, the side walls extend to accommodate a series of windows, with a small gabled roof over each one. Applied detail, which approaches the Carpenter Gothic, includes scalloping of the rake boards, outsize dentils, and machicolations at the roof line of the tower.
Farther south at 45 Church Street is the 1861 Edward Chapin House, a stylistic mix of Italianate, Second Empire, and Carpenter Gothic, which may be the result of historic remodeling . The mansard roof displays gabled dormers and eave pediments, each detailed with decorative openwork bargeboards, a Carpenter Gothic feature, as is the spindle course of the otherwise Tuscan porch. Italianate elements include round-arched windows, the full-height bay window of the facade, and the label molds over the windows.
Several other stylish houses face the park from across Main Street. With its flushboarded facade and pediment, fluted corner pilasters, and Doric order entrance in antis, the Hermon Chapin, Sr., House is one of the earliest of the Greek Revival style in the Pine Meadow Historic District (394 Main Street). By 1874 Anson Allen had converted a similar Greek Revival house next door to the north to the Italianate style by adding a Tuscan veranda and replacing the customary rectangular pediment window with a triple set of small round-arched windows (398 Main Street). The Hiram Kellogg House farther up the street is one of the few houses in the district with a ridge-to-street orientation (416 Main Street). It makes full use of its broad facade with a Tuscan porch flanked by bay windows. The center three bays are capped with an eave pediment, suggesting another transformation of a Greek Revival style house. In 1886 Wilbur Drake built a Queen Anne style house to the south of Hermon senior, which expresses the level of this style in the Pine Meadow Historic District (386 Main Street). Imbricated shingles in the gable peak, a group of three Queen Anne windows, and a small porch are features of this cross-gable plan house. The last of this group was a 1908 Colonial Revival built by Hermon Chapin III. It has a Palladian window in the facade gable, decorative shallow brackets under the eaves and rakes, and a veranda with round columns (390 Main Street). A contemporary carriage house stands behind the house.
Most of the masonry buildings in the Pine Meadow Historic District are located below the park on Main Street. They include three houses and several outbuildings on the west side. The first two are the Greek Revival style Graham-Smith House (369 Main Street), which is of painted brick with an unusually long main block and an extensive rear wing on the south, and the Edward Kellogg House, known as "Greystone" (367 Main Street) for its coursed stone block walls. Although a later Colonial Revival veranda extends across the Kellogg facade and terminates in a circular porch, the cube form of the main block, with its near-flat roof and overhanging eaves, is transitional Greek Revival/Italianate in style. A wood-framed version of this form, built much later at 23 Church Street, is more fully Italianate with a Tuscan veranda and bracketed overhanging eaves. South of the Kellogg House is a brick Federal, also associated with the Kellogg family, which is detailed with a fanlight in the gable, a closed fan over the door, and sidelights (363 Main Street). The walls are laid in a running bond with very narrow brick. A single header course enframes the round-arched doorway, and brick voussoirs form flared lintels over the windows, with a double course at the first floor. The same distinctive brick, similarly bonded and detailed, was apparently used on several associated outbuildings, now at the rear of other nearby properties. The only other brick house in the Pine Meadow Historic District is located directly across the street and also dates from the Federal period (372 Main Street). A modern brick porch partially obscures its ridge-to-street facade. The last masonry structure in the Pine Meadow Historic District is a stone outbuilding to the north on upper Main Street (428 Main Street), which appears to have utilized the same material as "Greystone." If it is the "stables" noted on the 1874 map, the building may antedate the worker's house on the property.
The influence of the Greek Revival style extends from the classic wood-framed three-bay type with full pediment and characteristic doorway, as exemplified by the Hermon Chapin, Sr., House, to smaller vernacular examples used for workers' housing. The tenements have a typical Greek Revival form and massing but are generally lower in height with two-bay facades. The larger and earlier three-bay wood-framed houses of this style are generally found on Main Street. Among them are three on the east side near the intersection of Main Street and the southern entrance to Church Street. All display a full pediment with a rectangular gable window and a Greek Revival doorway surround. The Trowbridge House (353 Main Street) on the northwest corner has a recessed doorway and a recessed porch on the kitchen wing. The only known example of a tenement that does not have the typical gable-to-street orientation is 359 Main Street. It apparently was always a two-family house.
Tenement housing began to be built around 1850 on the periphery of the district and continued to be produced with little change in design through the Civil War. While some examples have stylish doorways and all have the typical recessed kitchen wing, pediments are only suggested by facade cornice returns. Most are one-story houses with attic space under the gable and small horizontal attic windows under the eaves on the side elevations. Alterations to these buildings are generally limited to enclosure of wing porches, enlargement of wings, and residing with synthetic materials. No. Ten Street is so named because originally there were ten of these houses there. The remaining six are representative examples of this type (11, 13, 15, 16, 17 and 18 No. Ten Street). Among the best-preserved of the 18 examples on Wicket Street are those at 27, 32, 35, and 39 Wicket Street. All have a more pronounced and taller doorway surround and a slightly higher plate height for the main block. Two nearly identical houses on the north end of Wicket Street have the typical form and massing but no other Greek Revival features (69 and 71 Wicket Street). Their entrances are located in the side elevation rather than the facade. Another one at the south end of the street, the M.E. Smith House (13 Wicket Street), has a metal-shingled roof, as well as an exceptionally large barn at the rear. The barn is one of four from this period on this street.
A few other tenements appear elsewhere in the Pine Meadow Historic District. Of the two on Church Street, one (31 Church Street) is next to the former Pine Meadow School of this style. A group of four smaller versions of this type, actually cottages, was built on lower Main Street about 1864: 27, 32, 35, and 39 Main Street. The attic windows on some of these houses are exceptionally narrow. Another group is located at the north end of the district on the other side of the street, starting on the north with the C. Seymour House (446 Main Street) and the Joseph Hogerty House next door (440 Main Street). Because of its broader form and pediment, the earlier Seymour House was probably not built as a tenement. Were it not for its few Greek Revival features, such as the rectangular gable window and the doorway, the two-story Hogerty House, with its taller narrow facade, would be classified simply as nineteenth century domestic.
The rest of the nineteenth century architecture in the Pine Meadow Historic District often utilizes a partial cross-gable plan. The Queen Anne influence is evident in porches with turned posts, sometimes elaborated with brackets or spindlework. It is presumed that, like the more fully expressed Queen Anne style Wilbur E. Drake House, some of the larger examples were homes for management-level employees. The hand of the same builder is evident in two nearly identical houses of this type, one at 62 Wicket, the other at 406 Main Street. Each has a molded pediment over the paired second-floor windows in the gable ends. Only the Main Street example has retained its original porch. Essentially the same form, but in a one-and-one-half-story version, is found on the same streets (376 Main Street and 67 Wicket Street). They have one-over-two-bay facades with paired second-story windows, like another one on Main Street that also displays a nicely detailed Victorian entrance porch. A different stylistic influence is displayed on two gable-to-street houses on Church Street that have Carpenter Gothic bargeboards (15 Church Street, Darius B. Smith House; 41 Church Street, C.W. Chapin House) .
A depression in the land to the rear of the properties between Main and Wicket streets marks the course of a raceway that once provided waterpower to industry along the river on the southeast. Of the two factory buildings still extant, one built of brick was once part of the E.M. Chapin Plane and Rule Company at this location (117/8 Wicket Street). Composed of several different sections in an extended L-shape, it has a stepped gable on the east end. The middle section on the north side with its segmental-arch windows probably dates from about 1875. A later wood-framed factory is located across Main Street to the southwest behind the Greek Revival cottages there (339 Main Street). Sheathed in vertical-board siding, it has the appearance and form of a large barn.
The Pine Meadow Historic District is a fine representative of the growth and decline of a rural industrial village in nineteenth-century Connecticut. Its exceptional historic integrity and cohesiveness are demonstrated by a remarkable number of generally well-preserved surviving resources, which, through their historic association, location, and level of style, collectively embody the distinctive hierarchal society associated with rural industry. The Pine Meadow Historic District's architectural significance is derived from outstanding examples of High Victorian Italianate, Gothic Revival, and Greek Revival that provide an architectural focus for a larger body of nineteenth-century domestic architecture, which includes representative vernacular workers' housing influenced by the Greek Revival and Queen Anne styles.
Historical Background and Significance
In 1686, after James II became King of England, he founded the Dominion of New England under Governor Sir Edmund Andros, which threatened the Connecticut Colony's charter and its claim to its largely unoccupied northwest territory. In a preemptive response, the colony established ownership by deeding all the land there to the proprietors of Hartford and Windsor. New Hartford, one of the towns that evolved out of Hartford's share, was not settled until 1734 and the town was incorporated in 1738. The first settlement area at Town Hill was near the geographical center of the town. By the nineteenth century other villages were established near the town's sources of waterpower, the Farmington River on the north and the Nepaug River on the south. The settlements in the north, which were located on both sides of the river, were North Village, now New Hartford Center, and Pine Meadow.
By perpetuating the town's earlier Congregational institutions and erecting a new Town Hall there in 1875, North Village eventually replaced Town Hill as New Hartford's institutional center. Pine Meadow, guided by the social and economic aspirations of its Episcopalian upper class, evolved more autonomously. Despite these fundamental cultural differences, the economic development of the two villages followed a similar path, one that was characteristic for rural water-powered industry. Most companies were family-based, especially in Pine Meadow, where brothers either started or carried on businesses started by their father. Assisted by post-Civil War expansion of the railroads, both communities flourished in the late 1800s only to gradually decline in the early twentieth century, unable to compete with more centrally located urban-based, fossil-fueled industry.
Pine Meadow first harnessed the power of the Farmington River in the early nineteenth century. In 1806 Roger Sheldon dammed the river and dug a power canal or race through the village. Its path lay between the Albany Turnpike (present-day Main Street) and what later became Wicket Street, so-named because of the gates or "wickets" that controlled the flow along its length. Over the course of the century, the race was enlarged and provided power for a group of mills and factories established by a succession of entrepreneurial families in the southeastern part of the district.
The first of the industrial families was the Kelloggs. Already the owners of more than 400 acres in Pine Meadow (which for a time was known as "Kelloggsville"), they bought out Roger Sheldon's water privilege in 1808. The Kelloggs opened a brass foundry and a woolen textile mill. The earliest marked grave in Pine Meadow Cemetery was that of Samuel Kellogg, who died in 1828. Among the dwellings associated with the family are Edward Kellogg's stone house (367 Main Street) and the earlier brick Federal style house next door (363 Main Street). They were located across Main Street from the George C. Kellogg Tool Company buildings (no longer extant). At least one worker's house on upper Wicket Street belonged to the family as late as 1874 (63 Wicket Street). Like several other Pine Meadow residents who enjoyed a modest business success, Hiram Kellogg remodeled an earlier 1848 house in the Italianate style about 1870 (416 Main Street).
In 1826 Hermon Chapin, Sr., bought part of the Kellogg water privilege and established a factory for making wooden hand tools, which continued in business under several names until 1928, when, as Chapin-Stephens, it was sold to Stanley Rule Co. of New Britain. Much of the main factory was later demolished but the present building along lower Wicket Street apparently incorporates at least one building that was standing in the late 1870s (117/8 Wicket Street). The long-term success of the Chapin enterprise and the wealth it generated is demonstrated by the philanthropy of its founder and the impressive houses associated with three generations of this family in the district. Typically, with enlightened self-interest, Hermon Chapin, Sr., built housing for his workers and also made generous gifts of land to the community. He provided land for Pine Meadow School (33 Church Street) and Chapin Park, which was laid out about 1860. Church services were held in Chapin Hall (location unknown) until the first Episcopalian church was built at the south end of Church Street (on the site of 11 Church Street). After it burned down, Hermon donated the land for a new church, the present St. John's Episcopal, where he and his family were members (114/11 Church Street).
The earliest extant residence associated with the Chapins is the Greek Revival style house that Hermon, Sr., built in 1834 for his bride, Catherine Merrill (394 Main Street). It is said that he added to an earlier 1784 house already on the site. Catherine left the house to the Episcopal church as a rectory, or parish house. Hermon's sons are responsible for the two most imposing houses in the village, both on Church Street. Edward, who inherited the company, built his elaborate Victorian house just south of the church (45 Church Street). It replaced his earlier one on the site, which was moved farther south, probably the Carpenter Gothic next door (41 Church Street). His brother, Philip, bought out the Kellogg machine works around 1865 and established his own business there, the Chapin Machinery Company, which specialized in making knitting machines. He married Amilia Bushnell about that time and moved into his mansion, a gift from his father-in-law, William Bushnell of Hartford, which was built on land he received from his father (55 Church Street). Despite this impressive start, Philip's business failed to prosper and he was bought out by his brother. After the death of his wife, Philip left Pine Meadow to make a new start in Cleveland, Ohio. Later he ran an ironworks in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, which was destroyed in the famous flood there in 1889. Philip, who later lived in Washington. D.C., and Paris, apparently never returned to Pine Meadow. A rental property until 1887, the mansion was purchased as a seasonal retreat by Hubert Richards and remained in that family until 1974. The last residence associated with the Chapins is that of Hermon III, Edward's elder son, who built his Colonial Revival style dwelling across from the park in 1908 (390 Main Street). Wilbur Drake's Queen Anne style house next door is also associated with the family and the firm. Drake, who married Edward's niece, Julia Wilcox, and worked at the company, built the house on Chapin land (386 Main Street).
Company housing, mostly built by the father, was apparently inherited by both Chapin brothers; on the map of 1874, Philip and Edward owned at least 15 workers' houses. Philip's included all the houses on No. Ten Street, which was then known as Chapin Street. They both owned houses on Wicket Street, upper Main Street, and Church Street. Edward also owned the store and post office just below the park (113/3 Main Street). His building may be incorporated in the present structure there that still serves as a post office.
Another set of brothers, John C. and Darius B. Smith, had connections with industry in New Hartford Center as well as Pine Meadow. They were first involved in early attempts to make textiles in the center, in a company called Smiths and Brown. After the mill burned down in 1845, it was rebuilt as the Greenwoods Mill, with John C. Smith as director and resident agent. About that time Darius B. established a textile mill in Pine Meadow, later known as D.B. Smith and Son, which produced cotton duck. It was located next to the Chapin Machinery Company and may have been a direct successor to the Kellogg mill. In 1874 D.B. Smith is identified as the owner of almost a dozen houses in Pine Meadow, including his home, the brick Greek Revival at 369 Main Street which he bought from Freeman Graham in 1848. The rest are generally vernacular Greek Revival style workers' houses, except for the two-family one at 359 Main Street. It is probable that all four of the cottages on lower Main Street (325, 329, 331 and 333 Main Street) were built by Smith for his workers, since in 1874 at least two were still owned by his wife. She also may have owned the others, even though they are identified by other names. At that time her husband also owned much of the undeveloped land along the river on the east and north sides of the village.
Several smaller and less successful industries flourished for a time. E.A. Bragg, presumably the same man (or a descendant) who lived at 406 Main Street, ran a saddlery hardware shop. The homes of the Allen brothers, who started a brass foundry in 1848 next to the one owned by the Kelloggs, also remain on Main Street. Anson J. Allen was responsible for the Italianate remodeling of his Greek Revival house at 398 Main Street, while his brother, Samuel, who lived across the street, apparently was content with his home's original Greek Revival style (405 Main Street). A third brother, Philomen, was also engaged in the business, but his house has not been identified.
The association of style and status with the spatial arrangement of the Pine Meadow Historic District is remarkably well delineated. From the well-preserved houses in and near the center to the satellite workers' housing on the periphery, the organization of the district by class and occupation is quite evident. Also, it is apparent from the architecture that the social structure of the village became more complex as the century progressed. With a multi-level middle class emerging as industry expanded and matured, the simple owner-worker nexus was no longer applicable, as demonstrated by the proliferation of simple Victorian cross-gable houses either built by, or rented to, supervisory personnel in this period.
Clearly, no other buildings achieve the level of style and ornamentation that is expressed by the houses of the Chapin brothers and St. John's Episcopal Church at the heart of the district on Church Street. While others in Pine Meadow are stylish in their own right and many have collective significance, these three individually significant Victorian buildings, together with the neighboring park, not only establish the district's height of style but its late nineteenth-century ambience. The significance of the Philip Chapin House has already been recognized by its listing on the National Register in 1977 (55 Church Street). Taking as its model a northern Italian Renaissance villa, it displays a richness of ornamentation that is well integrated into the total design. Panelling, moldings, and carved brackets are used to good effect, often in interesting geometric combinations, to set off architectural features and several arched forms. The interior is equally elaborate and well-preserved. One would expect such a house to be designed by a professional architect but, remarkably, it was the work of a local builder/architect, A.J. Kellogg. The only other house in the Pine Meadow Historic District that comes close to signifying such wealth and status is that of Chapin's brother, Edward. Though nearly as large, Edward's house is not as elaborate and perhaps more in keeping with its rural village setting. Less well-defined stylistically, it is an outstanding example of Victorian-period architecture, which incorporates Gothic, French, and Italianate influences. Together these houses make a fitting frame for the exceptional Gothic Revival church between them. Not truly Carpenter Gothic in style, St. John's successfully integrates the formal conventions of Gothic ecclesiastical architecture with what are clearly expressions of a skillful country builder. From its scalloped rakes to the most unconventional machicolations, it is exuberant in its detail. Of particular note is the use of pedimented arches to join the octagonal base of the spire to its pyramidal roof. Although such a transition mimics the more common broached spire, the treatment here is most unusual.
Even though none of the other houses in the Pine Meadow Historic District approach the stylistic level of the Chapin houses, those built or remodeled by other factory owners add architectural variety to the streetscape. With their larger lots and advantageous location near the park, exceptionally well-crafted and preserved homes, such as the Italianate/Greek Revival Anson Allen House (398 Main Street), are also a clear expression of upper middle-class status. Of particular note is the 1908 Hermon Chapin III House (390 Main Street). Not only is it one of very few houses in the district of this style, with its classical influences, it was considered very modern for its day and quite a departure from the prevailing nineteenth-century architecture.
The strength of the Greek Revival influence in the Pine Meadow Historic District and its long duration are of particular significance. Because they are generally so well-preserved, the evolution of the style from individually owned residences to groups of workers' houses is amply illustrated. Although the colonnade and full temple front that often characterized more stylish urban architecture in this period are not in evidence, the exceptionally well-preserved Hermon Chapin, Sr., House is the purest example of the Greek Revival style as it was built in Pine Meadow. Most houses of this style and period have kitchen wings, but here the temple form is accentuated by its isolated main block. Its well-proportioned facade makes use of classical orders at the entrance in a relatively sophisticated manner.
Among the numerous examples in the Pine Meadow Historic District that do have the more typical massing for farmhouses of the Greek Revival style are the generally well-preserved neighboring Samuel Lemley House (341 Main Street) and Sandmiller House (343 Main Street). Mirror images of each other, they have retained many of the original features of the main block, such as finely detailed recessed doorways and rectangular gable windows, and their modern synthetic sidings are sensitively applied. The nearby Trowbridge House is an exceptionally fine example, which also has retained its original kitchen wing with recessed porch supported by panelled posts in an unaltered condition (353 Main Street).
More vernacular interpretations of this style in the Pine Meadow Historic District, as expressed by the numerous examples of workers' housing, are certainly representative of the type built during the heyday of rural industry in the antebellum period. Even though their state of preservation is not equal, all worker's houses considered to be contributing have retained their characteristic form, orientation, and general fenestration pattern. A remarkable number have a degree of ornamentation that seems inconsistent with their function, especially in the vernacular detailing of their doorways. Reconfigured to fit the smaller tenement facades, these attenuated doorways with their out-of-scale entablatures have a special charm. This feature is particularly evident on the well-preserved houses on Wicket Street (32 Wicket Street, L.W. Phelps House; 39 Wicket Street, D. Smith Worker's House; 45 Wicket Street, N. Gaines House; 49 Wicket Street, J. McCabe House) and the smaller cottages on lower Main Street (325, 329, 331 and 333 Main Street).
 Here "No." is an abbreviation for number not north.
These are just two of a number of workers' houses identified with individuals other than company owners on the 1874 map. Although it is possible that some had been sold to workers or other landlords by this time, nineteenth-century maps are not definitive sources, since names used can be either occupants or owners.
County Atlas of Litchfield, Connecticut. New York: F.W. Beers & Co., 1874.
Hartford, Connecticut. Connecticut Historical Society. Chapin Collection.
History of Litchfield County, Vol. 2. Philadelphia, J.W. Lewis & Co., 1881.
"New Hartford, Connecticut." Boston: O.H. Bailey & Co., 1878 (map, bird's-eye view).
"New Hartford Historic District Study Committee Report." n.d.
"Report of the Historic District Study Committee of the Town of New Hartford, 1979.
† Jan Cunningham, consultant, Cunningham Associates, Ltd. and John Herzan, Connecticut Historical Commission, Pine Meadow Historic District, New Hartford, Litchfield County, CT, nomination document, 1996, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.