New Geneva Historic District
The New Geneva Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document.  Adaptation copyright © 2008, The Gombach Group.
The New Geneva Historic District lies on a bend of the east bank of the Monongahela River in southwestern Nicholson Township, Fayette County. The Georges Creek enters the river along the south side of the district. The town and its streets slope up from the river and creek to the bluff overlooking the river. (The steepness of the slopes was one deterrent to the town's further development.) The district contains 35 buildings, including 22 houses, two churches, a schoolhouse, a store, a shop, a garage, and some sheds. One of the houses also served as a tavern and another as a cabinetmaking shop. Over a third of the buildings were built in the late nineteenth century. Twenty-two percent of the district's buildings were constructed in the late eighteenth/early nineteenth century, and the same amount were built during the early twentieth century. A lesser number of buildings was built in the mid-nineteenth century. The majority of buildings are of frame construction. There are also five brick, two stone, and two log buildings within the district. Using traditional building forms and plans, most of the buildings are vernacular in design. Many exhibit elements of various popular national styles from the early nineteenth century into the early twentieth century as well. There are also three historic archaeological sites and one historic site (ferry landing) within the district. There are six noncontributing buildings within the district. These are either houses or small frame sheds lacking sufficient integrity or not built within the period of significance. The district itself is a rather compact grouping of historic buildings which maintain the integrity of setting and form of a small commercial river port.
This district focuses on Ferry, County, and Ford streets in the lower section of town and Dug and Front streets in the upper section. This was the core of New Geneva's early development and is also the area retaining the highest integrity. The narrow floodplain allowed for only three streets to run parallel to the river. In this lower section of town, three streets also ran perpendicular to the river. Once up on the bluff, streets ran at about a 45 degree angle to the river. Route 166 is the main route, going north and south, through New Geneva. Known as Ferry Street, this has always been the main commercial street in town. Route 166 provides connections to Route 119 and the nearest cities of Uniontown and Morgantown, West Virginia.
The architecture of New Geneva is largely vernacular, the result of nearly two hundred years of building traditions that evolved through use and experimentation. Among the forces affecting this vernacular tradition were the natural environment, local builder/architects, and inhabitants of various ethnic backgrounds. The initial settlement imprint of the builder/craftsmen of the early settlement era c.1790-c.1820, particularly Albert Gallatin, was long lasting. Elements of nineteenth-century national architectural movements including Federal, Greek Revival, Italianate, and Queen Anne were adopted by New Geneva builders. However, most of these homes retained elements or floor plans related to earlier styles and vernacular traditions.
Log was generally the first building material used on the frontier. As the economy improved through commercial farming and the development of transportation routes and industries, more buildings were constructed of stone or brick, a more costly and generally more substantial building form. Census and tax records revealed quite a few masons in the New Geneva area. Although log buildings were once quite common in New Geneva, only two are known to exist in this district.
Some of the earliest residences in the New Geneva Historic District, dating to the late eighteenth/early nineteenth century, include examples of the two-room center chimney plan. Perhaps the best and earliest example is the two-and-a-half story, log Bothwell House. Unlike examples found in Greensboro, this house has an off-centered front door. (Generally, the Greensboro examples had two front doors.) The Bothwell House floor plan includes back-to-back fireplaces on both floors and a dogleg stair going up between the chimney and rear wall. Other examples of this floor plan include the log Thompson House and the one-and-a-half story brick house on Lot 28. None of these examples had two front doors. All had kitchen additions to the rear. Of the three houses, the Bothwell House had the most simple of kitchens, a one-story shed roof type. Lot 28 had the most high style elements.
The c.1800 stone Wilson House has the finest Federal style details in the area. The front door has an arched multi-pane transom, a panelled reveal, and a pedimented and fluted surround. Beneath the boxed cornice of the facade there is a geometrically designed frieze. One of the distinctive features of the Wilson House are the double stacked galleries which face the river. These are similar in form to those which Gallatin in 1795 had placed on his Friendship Hill, located south of New Geneva, and those on the now demolished Nicholson House. The floor plan of the Wilson House, with a nearly central hall flanked by parlors, is similar to an I house. Typically in this area the houses are only one room deep. Other examples of the I house plan include the Davenport House, which is five bays wide, but it has elements of the Greek Revival style. A vernacular style house is on Lot 15 which is also an I house but only three bays wide. Another house within the district with Federal details is on Lot 28. This one-and-a-half story brick house has back-to-back fireplaces with Federal style surrounds. These surrounds are highlighted with fluted pilasters, recessed panels beneath the mantel, and molded mantels with accented capitals.
Among the earliest buildings in the district is the large timber frame building on Lot 2, and known in the late nineteenth century as the Sandusky Building. Built c.1800, the main block of this two-and-a-half story building not only served as a house but a shop and possibly a store and warehouse as well. It is one of the few double pile houses surviving in town. The stone Nicholson house across the street was also double pile. Showing elements of the Federal style in its molding and dentiling beneath its boxed cornice, in fireplace surrounds, and its staircase, this building is the only known timber frame building in New Geneva. Its large attic and cellar spaces along with the northeast corner shop space are indicative of the commercial uses made of this structure. There is a late nineteenth century frame addition to its south side with Italianate features.
As with most of the United States, the 1850s through the 1880s was a period of transition in the architectural development of New Geneva. In this period some traditional forms were retained, but at the same time national architectural trends were influential, especially in exterior designs. For example, the Davenport house expressed the Greek Revival style on its exterior but retained the I house plan on its interior. The small brick house, Lot 28, maintained the traditional two-room central chimney plan but its back-to-back fireplaces express the current architectural trend.
As previously mentioned the Davenport house has Greek Revival style elements. Built for storekeeper James Davenport, this brick house has characteristic details of that style including low roof pitch, elaborated door surround with a single panel door, and a wide bracketed cornice. The adjoining Eberhart house also has details reminiscent of the Greek Revival style. The New Geneva Baptist Church is a late example of this style. This gable fronted, one-and-a-half story, frame structure was built in Greek temple form. It features a pedimented hood over the front doors as well as an open Palladian window, wide cornice, and cornice returns in the gable pediment.
There are some very good examples of the Queen Anne style within this district. The c.1890 two-and-a-half story, brick Deffenbaugh house exhibits the asymmetrical facade with cutaway bays and cross gable dormers typical of that style. The c.1910, one-and-a-half story, yellow brick Hager house displays some additional features of the Queen Anne style. These include the textured shingles in the gable ends and the spindled friezework of the second floor balcony. Both houses have steeply pitched roofs. Another example is the c.1890, two-and-a-half story Williams house. It has an asymmetrical gable front with a recessed porch.
Early twentieth-century styles represented here include Bungalow and Mission. The c.1910, one-and-a-half story, frame was built in the Bungalow style. It has elaborated lines in its gable ends and a jerkin head roof. Another property is a vernacular version of the Bungalow style. Its heavy support columns and paired windows are characteristic of that era. The 1923 First Presbyterian Church of New Geneva features a Mission style bell tower.
Although none of the industrial buildings and structures associated with various New Geneva industries survive, some residential buildings associated with these industries do survive. These include the house of potter R.T. Williams, the house (Bothwell house) of foundryman David Downs, and the house of Isaac Eberhart, who was involved in the glass industry.
The surviving commercial buildings within the district date from the early nineteenth through the late nineteenth century. These include the Campbell/Fast store, a shop, the Wilson house which served as a tavern, and the Sandusky house which served as a cabinetmaking shop. There are no early twentieth-century commercial structures here like was found in Greensboro. While the Campbell/Fast store has Italianate characteristics, the Wilson and Sandusky houses have Federal details. The gable fronted, frame shop is built in traditional small shop form with no architectural embellishments.
Among the other types of resources within this district are the churches and school, located in the upper section of town, and a ceramic tile garage on the Davenport property. As previously mentioned the churches employ two very different architectural styles, the Greek Revival and Mission. However, the New Geneva Stone School is quite simple in form. This c.1810 coursed stone building was built in typical meeting house fashion with a steeply pitched roof and opposing doors on the eaves ends. The single bay, one story, gable fronted garage was built in the early twentieth century.
Located within the New Geneva Historic District are three archaeological sites. These include lots 22, 163, and 165. Lot 22 was the location of the most productive pottery in New Geneva, that of Alexander Conrad. Archaeological tests done between lot 22 and Georges Creek show stoneware waste deposits consisting of kiln furniture and sherds with both handpainted and stenciled designs. Also associated with pottery production there is the dock site on lot 165 just north of the mouth of Georges Creek. The archaeological dig there has produced information concerning the production and transport of New Geneva stoneware. Lot 163 was the site of last New Geneva glass factory. The 1986 archaeological tests done at the stone foundations on or near lot 163 were inconclusive as to their association with the glass factory. Although glass fragments, including small glass rods and globs, were found there, no obvious glassmaking deposits were recovered.
Also located within the boundary of the New Geneva Historic District is the ferry landing, located at the northwest end of Ferry Street. Although there are no known structures associated with this landing, the site is significant to the history of the town.
Noncontributing buildings within the district include those which were constructed after the period of significance or are so severely altered that they can no longer convey their period of significance. Included in this group are mid-twentieth-century houses and sheds.
Although alterations have occurred to this district through demolitions, new siding materials, neglect, and additions, the present district is able to convey its historic significance in association with the Monongahela River and its transportation system as well as the commercial/industrial and architectural development of the area. The New Geneva Historic District retains the form and layout prescribed by Albert Gallatin in 1797. In addition, the district maintains the integrity of feeling of a small river port of the Upper Monongahela River.
The New Geneva Historic District is significant in the areas of transportation, commerce, industry, architecture, and historic archaeology from the late eighteenth century through c.1930. Although officially laid out in 1797 by Albert Gallatin, a smaller town had been planned there by William George Wilson in 1793. Named for Gallatin's home town of Geneva, Switzerland, he envisioned the town as a cultural and industrial center for refugees of the French Revolution. Gallatin's ambitious plan included 160 lots with two squares and a lot for public use. The town was seen by founder Gallatin as the nearest portage between the upper Potomac region and the upper Ohio region. He and a partner had established a trade store near New Geneva by the 1780s. New Geneva evolved from an early trading center to a small industrial center — first associated with Gallatin's glass and gun industries and the nearby iron industries and later, the pottery industry. The slackwater system of locks and dams had been developed on the Monongahela River such that by the 1850s packet boats could travel from Pittsburgh to the Greensboro/New Geneva area almost year round. At that time New Geneva became a shipping point for southern Fayette County as well as parts of what is now northern West Virginia. Its mid-nineteenth-century growing industrial and transportation significance spurred commercial development. The 1880s saw the pottery industry moving to the Midwest, where efficient production and transportation centers dictated the growing trend toward mass production. By 1889 slackwater navigation had been extended to Morgantown such that the port of New Geneva would henceforth serve a more localized area. Nevertheless, New Geneva continued as a local entrepot for farmers, miners, artisans, and businessmen into the early twentieth century.
New Geneva was located on a trail that came east over the Alleghenies and headed for the town of Washington, Pennsylvania. Part of this trail became the Sand Creek Road, one of the earliest roads surveyed in Fayette County. This road becomes Ferry Street through town. It continues to be the main street. However, many of New Geneva's early visitors would have first seen the settlement from the river. It was this connection with the Monongahela/Ohio River system that gave impetus to New Geneva's early growth. Almost from the beginning it was also connected with Greensboro, lying west across the river. These sister towns shared a nearly identical industrial and transportation history from the late eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Gallatin retained an interest in Wilson's ferry which crossed from New Geneva to Greensboro. In fact, all deeds from Gallatin to lot holders in New Geneva required their acknowledgement of his ferry rights.
Part of the reason entrepreneur and political economist Albert Gallatin created New Geneva was to house workers/craftsmen and their families for his glass and gun industries. This early glass period 1798-1802 saw 25 lots sold in New Geneva. Thereafter development was slow. Log was the predominant building material of the early Gallatin era. However, other materials became the choice of New Genevans as the nineteenth century progressed. New Geneva does not retain the number of log structures that Greensboro does. New Geneva is directly linked to the industrial development of the Upper Monongahela region.
Not only did Gallatin have an influence in the early commercial/industrial development of New Geneva but on its architecture as well. Among the architectural precedents that he may have introduced to the area is the use of the two-room house plan. His correspondence indicates he had houses built of this type for his company's use. As an indication of his belief in New Geneva's future success, Gallatin applied to the Postmaster General in 1799 to have a post office established at New Geneva, one of the earliest in Fayette County. In 1804 the American Gazetteer echoed the promise of its founder in describing New Geneva, 230 miles from Washington, as having "a manufactory of glass bottles and muskets. Iron ore and coal are found in great plenty in the vicinity." Thomas Ashe characterized New Geneva in 1806 as "a thriving town" where Kentucky boats are built. Goods and people had embarked at New Geneva from the beginning of settlement there. The growing glass industry which had begun in New Geneva moved to the west side of the river in 1807. Gallatin had been originally interested in making New Geneva an educational center. According to local historians, he was involved in the construction of the New Geneva Stone School. By 1814 the school was still not furnished. Early settler Thomas Clare died that year and willed the trustees of the school $100 to the furnishing of the building.
The architecture of the New Geneva Historic District reflects the various economic expansions and declines of the area. By the 1790s the New Geneva area served as a trading depot for raw goods coming west and down from the Upper Monongahela. These were exchanged with store goods brought by merchant traders from eastern cities. Warehouses on the banks of the river continued to be operated in New Geneva at least into the 1870s. The Albert Gallatin Company developed various industries on the Georges Creek during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. These industries along with nearby iron producing facilities created speculative interest in the area. Nevertheless growth was slow. In fact, when Gallatin sold his interests in the town in the 1820s most of the lots remained unsold. By the late 1850s the glass industry had left New Geneva forever. While some minor industries continued, only the pottery industry grew substantially through the mid-nineteenth century. In 1856 slackwater river travel was extended to the New Geneva area allowing it to grow commercially. By the 1870s New Geneva pottery shared with Greensboro a dominance in regional pottery production.
However, by the late 1880s the pottery industry had moved to major industrial centers where transportation and technology allowed greater production at lower costs, leaving production sites such as New Geneva as backwaters. In 1889 slackwater navigation on the Upper Monongahela was extended to Morgantown lessening the need for New Geneva as a port. However, New Geneva continued as a social and cultural center with three churches, two schools, doctors, and various businesses, including two hotels. The boom of the coal/coke industry spurred the growth of coal patch towns north of New Geneva and allowed the town to continue as a local commercial center. With the drop in demand for coal in the 1930s, the area became economically depressed.
New Geneva and Greensboro not only shared a commercial, industrial, and transportation heritage, but also a common social and cultural heritage as well. Businessmen on one side of the river invested in property on the other side. Many of the glass makers of New Geneva moved to Greensboro. However, some stayed and engaged in other professions. Likewise, the pottery industry of the area originated in Greensboro but soon spread across the river. Families on both sides of the river were interrelated. Presbyterians in New Geneva would attend church at Greensboro. The pastor of the Greensboro Baptist Church preached in New Geneva until the New Geneva congregation was able to build their own church in the 1880s. Ultimately, the financial success or failure of one town's industry affected its counterpart in the other town.
New Geneva continued as a small commercial/industrial center through the early nineteenth century. Gallatin was also influential in promoting the wool and weaving industry in the New Geneva area. The 1816 Springhill Township tax lists showed fourteen men employed in various aspects of this industry. By 1840 the manufacture of woolen goods was the highest valued industry in Fayette County. Storekeeper John Davenport had located in New Geneva by 1810 and among other lots purchased the lot where Gallatin had his store. Davenport's descendants continued their New Geneva mercantile business into the early twentieth century. The Gazetteer of Pennsylvania in 1832 noted that New Geneva contained "about 60 dwellings, 1 church, 2 schools, 4 stores, 2 taverns, 1 grist mill and 1 saw mill." Although New Geneva was founded with great expectations, Greensboro by the 1830s was already larger.
During the 1830s and 1840s other businesses and industries developed in the New Geneva area. During the 1830s Albion Mellier was active in the commercial and manufacturing enterprises at New Geneva. He constructed a three-story, steam operated flour mill along with a steam saw mill, and had a large storeroom on the south side of Georges Creek. He was also involved in the manufacture of steamboats. Two of his boats, the Albert Gallatin and the Napoleon Bonaparte became widely known. In 1837 Andrew Kramer & Company opened a new glass factory in New Geneva which certainly brightened the prospects for the town. In 1843 the number of workers involved in the New Geneva glass operation peaked at 17. William James established a foundry there in 1840 and produced a widely-sold cook stove. Nicholson Township was formed from the northern section of Springhill Township in 1845.
The 1850 to 1860 period saw the development of additional industries in the town. New Geneva continued to receive more recognition than its sister town of Greensboro. The 1853 Gazetteer of the United States notes that it has a manufactory of glass and several stores. David Downs was making threshing machines in 1850, and by 1860 Alexander Conn had an agricultural implement manufactory. The 1850s also saw the beginning of the pottery industry in New Geneva. By 1858 the glass industry had left New Geneva permanently. However, certain residents would continue to work in glass houses into the early twentieth century. George Debolt, previously a potter in Greensboro, was the first potter taxed there in 1855. Just as the glass industry spread from the east side of the river to the other, likewise the pottery industry with its associated men, ideas, raw goods, and products was transported from Greensboro to New Geneva. The industry thrived on quality stoneware clay beds located nearby. By 1860 Samuel Dilliner was listed as a stoneware manufacturer.
The late nineteenth/early twentieth century period saw other changes occurring in the community of New Geneva. By 1871 Alexander Conrad had entered the pottery industry there. Conrad, whose pottery production rivaled the Hamiltons of Greensboro, marked the peak in New Geneva pottery production. In 1882 Conrad's frame potter shop was sold by the Fayette County sheriff to Charles Williams. This same property was sold at sheriff's sale in 1896 to C.L. Williams, Arthur Robbins, Margaret Hamilton, and Isaac Hamilton. By 1902 the others had sold their interests to Hamilton and Robbins. While there had been eight potters in town in 1880, by 1910 there were only three potters in town. Robbins, last of the Greensboro/New Geneva potters, continued making utilitarian ware until his death in 1914.
Despite only containing 60 households, New Geneva was doing well commercially in 1880. There were four dry goods merchants in addition to a regular merchant and two hotel keepers. The town was also equipped with two tailors, three blacksmiths, a teamster, a hack driver, two physicians and a dentist. There were also two schools and three religious organizations in town. By 1882 historian Ellis described New Geneva as antiquated, and "the streets, except along the river and creek, are in most parts steep and difficult." He further stated, "There are few pretentious buildings here, either business structures or residences." As in Greensboro, the managers and owners of businesses and industries in New Geneva never appeared to live very far above their artisans/workers.
The 1890 Pennsylvania State Gazetteer indicates the town continued its role as local entrepot. New Geneva had about 400 inhabitants but boasted three flour mills, three general stores, three hotels, and a stoneware manufacturer. Artisans included two tailors and two blacksmiths. Among the professionals were numbered a dentist and a physician. The river was still a prominent force in the life of the town as shipments of finished goods and raw materials could be made directly by boat but had to be hauled overland if shipped by rail to Fairchance, the nearest station.
Between 1900 and 1910 there was a great population increase in Nicholson Township brought about by the great coal/coke boom in the area. While most New Geneva males in the 1900 census were listed as day laborers, a majority of the Nicholson Township occupations listed on the 1910 census related to coal mining or working at the coke ovens, located northeast of town. The 1900 census revealed a wide variety of occupations, including stone masons, dress makers, silversmiths, butchers, salesmen, merchants, and even two steamboat mates. Among the 1910 occupations were: coke drawer, mine foreman, brakeman for coal mine, fireman for power house, etc. Five New Genevans listed themselves as merchants in 1910.
About 1900 new services such as telephone and gas were brought to New Geneva. Several gas wells were struck near town. Electric service and a new state highway (Route 266) were brought to town in 1929. The town received bus service in 1931. The Greensboro ferry ceased operations in the early 1950s. A significant link between the two towns had been broken. It signaled the end of the commercial/industrial and transportation links of the two towns. It also effectively broke the social/cultural bonds the towns had shared for more than one hundred and fifty years.
The late nineteenth century brought more clearly recognizable national styles to the area. As previously mentioned about a third of the district's buildings date to this period. At that time, continued industrialization and transportation and communication developments allowed more contact with national trends which increasingly overlaid vernacular building traditions. The finely detailed Queen Anne style Deffenbaugh House and Campbell/Fast Store, with its Italianate details, appeared during this time.
Nearly a quarter of the district's buildings date to the early twentieth century. During this period unadulterated examples of the Queen Anne and Bungalow styles appeared in New Geneva. These are exemplified in the c.1910 Queen Anne Hager House and a frame bungalow.
Although the Greensboro Historic District may have a greater range of architectural styles and forms than its sister river town of New Geneva, New Geneva does have some exceptional examples of the Federal and Queen Anne styles. New Geneva is also a more compact district and has fewer noncontributing buildings. Although Haydentown, east of New Geneva in Georges Township, was laid out in the late eighteenth century like New Geneva, it never grew after the local iron industry there diminished. Other late eighteenth century Fayette County river towns included Brownsville and Connellsville. Brownsville developed rapidly as a transportation center after the National Road was completed through it. Connellsville expanded as a major coal/coke center from the late nineteenth century into the early twentieth. Neither Brownsville nor Connellsville retain the ambiance of a small river town like that of New Geneva. Only Rice's Landing and Greensboro on the Upper Monongahela are comparable in size, and Rice's Landing had a later period of expansion. Therefore, its housing stock is generally younger. The New Geneva Historic District exemplifies the economic ups and downs of a commercial/industrial port on the upper Monongahela River from the late eighteenth century into the early twentieth century.
In summary, the New Geneva Historic District is significant in industry, commerce, transportation, and architecture. All of which are interrelated. The New Geneva glass making operation proved that quality glass could be produced on the western frontier when money, men, natural resources, and transportation networks could be harnessed. The New Geneva artisans were on the cutting edge of technology producing some of the first pattern molded glass in the United States. This was made possible by New Geneva's location on the Monongahela River and its connection to the Ohio/Mississippi rivers, probably the largest and most important inland river network in the United States. Likewise, the New Geneva/Greensboro potteries were among the most productive in eastern United States. Talented craftsmen along with quality nearby clay banks produced a distinctive stoneware which had a large market. Lastly, the architecture of New Geneva, the most visible remains of the area's greatness, illustrates the blending of a range of local traditions with popular national trends.
New Geneva has a rich history in association with the industrial/commercial, architectural, and transportation development of the Upper Monongahela Valley. This is displayed in the diverse but intact architecture of the New Geneva Historic District. The Monongahela River was the main transportation artery for this area from the late eighteenth century into the early twentieth century. Roads were merely connectors bringing goods and people to ports on the river. This district is significant as one of three small surviving ports on the Upper Monongahela, and the only one in Fayette County. This district's buildings along with the ferry landing and archaeological sites associated with the glass and pottery industries there provide ample evidence of the significant role this town played in the development of the region.
Atlas of the County of Fayette and the State of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: G.M. Hopkins & Co., 1872)
Cultural Resource Investigations in Conjunction with the Replacement of Locks and Dams 7 and 8, Monongahela River, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, GAI Consultants, February 1986.
Elizabeth Davenport, History of New Geneva (no publisher, 1933)
Direct Tax of 1798, Greene and Fayette Counties
Franklin Ellis, ed., History of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, with Biographical Sketches (Philadelphia: L.H. Everts & Co., 1882)
Henry Glassie, Pattern in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968)
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Gwen Grimm, interviews
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R. Eugene Harper, The Transformation of Western Pennsylvania 1770-1800 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991)
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James Randolph, curator Waynesburg College Museum
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I. Daniel Rupp, Early History of Western Pennsylvania, and the West (Pittsburgh: A.P. Ingram, 1849)
Phil Schaltenbrand, Old Pots: Salt-Glazed Stoneware of the Greensboro-New Geneva Region (Hanover: Everybody's Press, 1977)
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Robert P. Stevenson, "The Story of One Old-Time Store," Pennsylvania Folklife Autumn 1993, Vol 43, No. 1
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Raymond Walters, Jr., Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1957)
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Bruce Weston, ed., The People of Southwestern Pennsylvania (Indiana, Pa.: Penn-West Communications, 1991)
Richard T. Wiley, Monongahela: The River and Its Region (Butler: The Ziegler Co., 1937)
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Works Progress Administration, History of New Geneva and Vicinity W.P.A. Project #WP5387 65-23-4933, 1963.