Lakeview Historic District
The Lakeview Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2012, The Gombach Group.
The small resort of Lakeview, located at Crystal Lake in southeast Moore County, has strong local significance as the only small turn-of-the-century resort in the county that retains its historic character. In 1903 a Boston entrepreneur, Harvey M. Holleman, went into partnership with turpentine businessman Percy L. Gardner and formed the Lakeview Townsite Company. They purchased 1,000 acres of farmland around Blue's Mill, a grist mill on a tributary of the Little River adjacent to the Seaboard Air Line Railway and U.S. Highway 1. They enlarged the mill dam into Crystal Lake, and laid out a small resort of gridded house lots and a hotel site around the lake, with sites for manufacturing along the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad tracks that paralleled the south shore of the lake. The railroad, an active participant in the promotion of the Moore County resort trade, built a Lakeview depot at the site. A number of individuals, most from New York and New England, built winter residences in the first few years to enjoy the mild winters, boating, fishing, and swimming. Among these were Percy Gardner, William E. Youland, a merchant from Maine, and B.D. Usshur, an Episcopal bishop from Massachusetts. The Lakeview Hotel, the resort's original inn, burned in 1911 and was quickly replaced that same year by a new building that also burned in 1911. The resort experienced a lull until the early 1920s, when Pinehurst businessman James L. Barber took ownership of the lake and recreational facilities. In 1923, Barber built the resort's third hotel, Lakeview Inn (demolished in 1983), a grand lodge with a ballroom that became famous for its summer evening dances. The 1920s and early 1930s marked the apogee of Lakeview's popularity as a summer resort for swimming, boating, and dancing.
After nearly being destroyed by the near construction of a textile dye plant in the early 1950s, Lakeview settled into existence as a pleasant lake suburb for year-round residents. In the 1980s when owner of Crystal Lake threatened to drain it and plant a tree farm, residents organized themselves into a non-profit advocacy group, Crystal Lake "SUPPORT" Inc., and have succeeded in gaining ownership of the lake, restoring it to its former beauty, and are attempting to preserve the historic resort character of Lakeview for future generations.
The picturesque Lakeview Historic District, dominated by the fifty-acre Crystal Lake, contains twenty-two historic cottages and one historic church sanctuary built between 1903 and the 1940, the resort's period of significance, and twelve post-1940 infill houses. The Lakeview Historic District is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places for its significance as a small resort community and for its historic resort architecture. The historic cottages, concentrated along Matthews Road on the north shore of the lake, Holly Road one block to the north, and McFadyen Lane east of the lake, include modest shingled cottages of vernacular Queen Anne style, substantial Colonial Revival style houses, stylish Bungalows and one vernacular log cottage. The infill houses include a lake-front cottage, several mobile homes, several Ranch style houses, and the Lakeview Condominiums, built in the 1980s on the site of the 1923 Lakeview Inn.
Lakeview is a small resort community in southeastern Moore County, located on the north side of U.S. Highway 1 between Vass and Southern Pines. This area of the county was settled in 1769 by Scottish immigrant Duncan Blue, whose original house stood on the present site of Lakeview Cemetery, on the south side of U.S.1. The Blue family grew and prospered in the community throughout the 1800s. Blue's son, Duncan Campbell Blue, built an earth dam across Shaddock's Creek, a tributary of the Little River, in the mid-1800s to form a mill pond. He built Blue's Mill beside the dam, giving the settlement its first identity. Between 1883 and 1886 the heirs of Duncan Campbell Blue sold the mill and pond to Reverend Martin McQueen, minister of Union Presbyterian Church located a few miles north. McDuffie's 1886 map of Moore County designates the pond as McQueen's mill pond.
The arrival of the Raleigh and Augusta Railroad (later known as the Seaboard Air Line Railroad) in the Sandhills in the mid-1870s opened up the pine forests of Moore County for development. In the late 1800s, northern entrepreneurs were attracted to Moore County by the railroad access and the vast expanses of land that had been timbered and could be purchased cheaply. Three new resort towns, Southern Pines, Pinebluff, and Jackson Springs were established in the 1880s. Boston industrialist James W. Tufts established Pinehurst [see Pinehurst Historic District], the most successful resort in the county, in 1895 as a mid-south winter resort for northerners seeking a warm climate. These resorts quickly achieved success, setting the stage for further resort development.
During 1902, Boston entrepreneur Harvey M. Holleman travelled along the Seaboard Air Line Railroad through Moore County looking for a likely resort site. With his partner, South Carolina native Percy L. Gardner, they sought land with a stream that could be dammed for a lake, and suitable agricultural land for cultivating peaches. A letter of May 1902 from Holleman to Gardner suggests that Blue's Mill would be a likely site, since it had a railroad location, a mill pond already in existence, and the land could be purchased for as little as $1.50 per acre and was perhaps worth $30.00 per acre once developed. Holleman and Gardner purchased a seventy-acre tract with mill pond and grist mill from John R. McQueen, son of Reverend Martin McQueen, in 1902. They purchased an additional 1,000 acres of land around the lake and in February 1903 they incorporated the Lakeview Townsite Company and began to lay out the town of Lakeview.
The Lakeview plat map of 1903 shows the landscape plan of the new resort, laid out around Crystal Lake. The only building shown is the railroad depot, already built beside the tracks on the south side of the lake. On the high elevations of the north and east sides, lots were laid out in a grid of thirty-nine blocks, each containing twenty-four 50x120 foot lots per block face. Broadway, the main street, runs along the eastern edge of the lake. A curvilinear road labelled "boulevard" curved around Crystal Lake. In the tradition of Southern Pines and Pinehurst, the residential streets were given New England and botanical names, such as New England Avenue, Lake Street, Park Street, Holly Street, Pine Tree Avenue, and other tree and plant names. The hotel site is located on Broadway across from the lake, and east of the lake, below the dam, is designated as the site of future manufacturing enterprises.
The Raleigh News and Observer of August 30, 1903 printed a front page article on the new resort announcing the grand opening of Lakeview to take place on September 7. A bird's eye view panorama of Lakeview, drawn by the Joyce Engineering Company to represent the fully-developed resort, accompanies the article. By this time, what had actually taken place was construction of the Lakeview depot, clearing of wooded areas, laying out of streets, construction of a larger dam to enlarge the mill pond into Crystal Lake, and construction of a three-story Lakeview Hotel and the Hub building, with a store and post office on the first floor and the resort office on the second floor. The hotel was built at the corner of Broadway and Park streets, the Hub on the east side of Broadway across the lake. The boosterish article, noting that Crystal Lake was the largest lake in Moore County, predicted that Lakeview would be a model winter and summer resort. The writer noted that fifty acres at the lakeside were reserved as a public park, and the shore boulevard wound around the lake from the depot to the mineral spring on the northwest side of the lake. Seaboard Airline Railroad would provide a half-price round trip fare to Lakeview's opening, and would run special trains from Raleigh to Lakeview for the event. The event would include a Good Roads Congress, featuring a contest between two competitive horse-powered "road building machines," a picnic dinner, and speeches by elected officials and a railway representative.
Holleman sold his interest in the resort within a year, leaving the remaining shareholders, Percy Gardner, Frank K. Ellington of Raleigh, and John N. Swanson of Boston to guide the new resort. Ownership of the stock fluctuated as investors traded in and out of the Lakeview Company. The major shareholders in 1908 still included Gardner, but also counted W.E. Youland, Arthur S. Newcomb, B.D. Usshur, John R. McQueen, and William P. Swanson. All were year-round residents of Lakeview except for Swanson and Usshur, Massachusetts residents. Usshur owned a winter home in Lakeview. The post office opened in 1903 with Gardner as postmaster. Lots were sold for $10 apiece, with covenants requiring a house of not less than $1,000 in value to be started within a year of purchase. Resort cottages began to be constructed. For example, Arthur S. Newcomb, a Maine native who had moved to Southern Pines and pursued a successful real estate career, purchased two lots on E. Lake Street (now McFadyen Lane) in 1905 and built a picturesque shingled bungalow. Newcomb was a year-round resident. Other early residents were original developer Percy Gardner, William E. Youland of Maine, who built a house on Matthews Road about 1907, Mrs. Howe and Mrs. Mackey, of New York, and B.D. Usshur of Massachusetts, an Episcopal Bishop. Some of these, such as Mrs. Williams, built modest cottages; others such as Gardner and Youland built large homes obviously designed to be year-round residences. Gardner's dwelling is a sizeable Queen Anne style cottage located across Matthews Road from the lake. Youland was smitten with Lakeview when he visited one early January and found people swimming in Crystal Lake. He built a large Colonial Revival style house overlooking the lake which was described in 1910 as a "fine villa" (205 Matthews Road).
Postcards of Lakeview from the first decade show the first hotel, an eclectic Victorian frame building with a large wrap-around porch and multiple gables, a pavilion and dock on the lake shore, pathways through the woods in front of the hotel, dirt roads, and views of two of the earliest rows of houses, in the 900 block of Holly Road across from the hotel, and along the north shore of the lake (now Matthews Road).
By 1907 there was a need for a church in which the small community could worship. Some services took place in the second floor of the Hub Building. In 1907 Youland donated $1,000 for the construction of Emmanuel Union Church on Bay Street (382 Camp Easter Road). The small, stylish Gothic sanctuary functioned as a nonsectarian church until 1924, when it became the Lakeview Presbyterian Church in order to serve the predominantly Presbyterian community. Shortly after construction, Charles Mills Ward of Boston donated funds for the entrance tower in honor of his son who died in 1906. Ward must have been one of the early vacationers at Lakeview, although no particular house has been linked to him. Leftover funds from the church construction helped to build a school house next door (demolished).
Around the grist mill, other industries began to develop. John McQueen and Jack Eastwood built a lumber mill along the creek east of the dam, as well as a power plant that supplied electricity to Lakeview initially, and later to Vass, Cameron, and other regional communities.
Early resident W.E. Youland took over management of the town about 1908 by purchasing controlling interest in the stock, thereby becoming president of the Lakeview Company. Youland continued to develop the little resort in the same direction as had Gardner. Restrictive covenants of the deeds during his tenure specified that a house must be built within two years. Under his supervision in 1909-1910 some twenty-four houses were built. Many of these were apparently rental cottages that have disappeared. He replaced the original Lakeview Hotel with a larger one, named the Loch Crystal, completed in early 1911. The three-story frame hotel stretched eleven bays across, with large octagonal towers at each end, a full porch, private bathrooms, telephones, and steam heat. Youland replaced the earth dam in 1913 with a larger concrete dam, thus raising the water level and enlarging the lake. Pine Island, a picturesque picnic spot in the middle of the lake, was submerged. The hotel burned to the ground on March 6, 1911, just two months after its completion. At the time of the fire, there were numerous guests, two of whom died in the fire. Guests at Lakeview stayed at the Seward Inn (3 McFadyen Lane), a large bungalow located across the street from the hotel site, during the rest of the decade.
During the second decade of Lakeview's development, John R. McQueen, the local businessman who had sold the land for the original resort, repurchased it from Youland, apparently about 1916. McQueen was a state representative, co-owner of a large buggy plant in Carthage, and head of the Bank of Pinehurst. McQueen lived in Lakeview by 1908, apparently in the McQueen-Gulledge House (165 Matthews Road), a stylish bungalow on the north shore. During this era it became obvious that Lakeview's main appeal was as a summer resort for swimming, boating, and dancing rather than as a winter attraction. A revised resort plat was drawn in 1916 that shows the hotel, bath house, store and post office, depot, and grist mill in place. The grid of residential blocks appears unchanged from the 1903 plat. By this time the shore drive is no longer indicated as a road. In 1921 McQueen leased the lake, two bath houses, a pavilion, a refreshment stand, three cottages, and thirteen boats to W.J. Harrington, who managed the resort for several highly successful years.
The third phase of Lakeview's development, from 1923 to the early 1930s, were Lakeview's golden years. In 1923 McQueen sold the 650-acre site of Lakeview to James L. Barber of Pinehurst, Tom Kelly of Southern Pines, and S.R. Smith of New York for the purpose of "special development as part of the county's array of resorts." Barber, who had built a house in Pinehurst in 1917, was president of the Barber line of transatlantic steamships. This management was apparently responsible for the construction of the third hotel, the Lakeside Inn, about 1923. The ten-bay wide, two-story frame hotel with long porch overlooking the lake, presided over Lakeview's best decade, the 1920s. A resident who grew up in Lakeview during the era recalls that the hotel ballroom was filled every night of the summer with guests dancing to music played by a full orchestra. Bands such as the "Rockaway 5," "Wild Cat Ramblers," and the "Original Southern Collegians" were contracted to play throughout the summer season. Excursion trains brought guests from Raleigh and Hamlet during this era, and July 4 and Labor Day celebrations attracted guests from far and wide.
Lakeview slowly declined from the later 1930s to 1950. Some older residents blame the decline on the increased availability of automobiles, which enabled pleasure seekers to visit the beaches for swimming and dancing. The popularity of golf courses at Pinehurst and Southern Pines also competed with Lakeview. But Lakeview remained a popular boating and fishing resort during this era.
Unfortunate ownership during the past fifty years nearly obliterated Lakeview's resort character. The company headed by James Barber sold the lake and much surrounding land to Alex McKenzie, who sold it in 1950 to the Wyandotte Worsted Company of Maine. Wyandotte intended to build a textile dye plant on the lake, which would have destroyed the water quality, as well as its resort character. Fortunately the Fort Bragg Army Base, located nearby, halted the plan because of its potential to pollute the Little River, the source of the base's water supply. Wyandotte retained ownership until 1981, allowing Lakeview to languish in limbo. The Lakeside Inn closed in 1959, and the pavilion was torn down in the early 1960s. In 1981 Eugene Ballard of Lumberton bought the lake and property, demolished the Lakeside Inn in 1983, and built a condominium complex on the site. He intended to upgrade the lake property and restore its resort status, but could not obtain sufficient capital. Unable to sell the condos, the complex became apartments instead. In 1985 a state environmental agency found deterioration in the dam. Unable to make the repairs, Ballard offered to sell the lake to local residents. Lakeview residents organized a non-profit group, Crystal Lake "SUPPORT" Inc., and by 1986 had raised sufficient funds to purchase Crystal Lake. "SUPPORT" then raised funds and repaired the dam. A new era of Lakeview's history was begun, a period of ownership and management by the citizens of Lakeview rather than by absentee owners.
Context: History and Architecture of Resort Communities in Southern Moore County: 1880s-1930s
In the late nineteenth century, southern Moore County, whose sandy soil and Longleaf pine forests characterizes it as part of the Sandhills region of southeastern North Carolina, developed a number of winter resorts that catered primarily to northerners who vacationed in warm southern climates. As the poor soil was not generally desirable for agriculture, entrepreneurs saw opportunities to acquire large parcels of cheap land for recreational developments. The catalyst for resort development in Moore County was John T. Patrick, industrial agent of the Seaboard Railroad, who seized upon the putative curative power of Longleaf pine habitats for tubercular and other respiratory diseases. Quickly Patrick began a promotional campaign aimed first at ailing New Englanders. It was not long before a steady stream of northerners migrated to the Sandhills. Patrick bought 570 acres on Shaws Ridge and planned the town of Southern Pines, which was founded in 1880 and incorporated in 1886. Soon after Southern Pines was formed, Patrick began laying out plans for Pinebluff, Roseland, and other resort communities. Many "dream" towns were planned by the railway promoters, some of which were never realized. With the help of Patrick's monthly publication, Southern Home-Seeker's Guide, which described the pleasures and profits of life in the Moore County Sandhills, northerners seeking a healthy place to live migrated to southern Moore County. At this time, railway lines were being built for the lumber industry, which also helped in developing new settlements along the routes. In 1890, the settlement of West End sprang up at the railhead of the Aberdeen and West End Railroad.
At the end of the nineteenth century, the developments in the Sandhills attracted the attention of a Boston philanthropist and inventor of the process of carbonating water, James W. Tufts. Tufts set out to develop a moderately priced retreat in southern Moore County for working class people of cold Northern states who otherwise could not afford a winter respite. He also thought he could attract those northerners who usually traveled much farther to Florida for the winter. Tufts' plan began to take form in 1895 when he purchased 5,000 acres, at $1 per acre, from the Page brothers. The firm of Frederick Law Olmsted was employed to draw up a plan for a New England village with an oval village green, winding drives, landscaped lawns and elaborate plantings. Tufts' Holly Inn, with 30 rooms at reasonable rates, was filled almost instantly with guests who enjoyed the tennis, bowling, croquet, horse racing, casino, and socializing provided by the resort.
Later named Pinehurst, Tufts' settlement received its first golf course in 1897, an instant hit. The soils of the region, albeit agriculturally unproductive, were perfect for the Scottish sport of golf, then gaining popularity in the United States. As golf became the chief form of recreation at Pinehurst, the resort developed into the premier winter golf resort in the country, patronized by captains of industry and commerce rather than the working class as it was originally intended. Tufts' original concept of company-owned housing for Pinehurst evolved into privately-owned cottages in the early twentieth century as golf took hold. The communities of Southern Pines and Pinehurst thrived during this era.
The architecture of these communities reflected nationally popular styles brought down to the region by northern developers and residents. The earliest resort houses were small, picturesque Victorian cottages like those built at mountain and seaside resorts throughout turn-of-the-century America. These Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, and Craftsman style cottages, often covered with wood shingles, possessed a distinct New England character. In Pinehurst, James W. Tufts and his assistant Warren H. Manning employed well-known architects from Boston and other northern cities to design the public buildings, and hired large area contracting firms to erect them. When individuals began to build cottages at Pinehurst in the early 1900s, they also utilized architects who provided a variety of designs in keeping with the frame, picturesque character that had been originally established.
Other resorts also blossomed and faded in the county. Jackson Springs, also known as Mineral Springs, attracted summer visitors by the early 1800s who took the waters of the healing spring. In the late 1880s the community began to prosper. The Jackson Springs Hotel, built in 1888, became a fashionable summer resort frequented by notable men such as James Buchanan Duke, John Angier, Robert N. Page and John Blue. The completion of a spur line for the Aberdeen and Asheboro Railroad in 1900 spawned the construction of both summer and winter homes in the community. The popular resort faded when the hotel burned and the allure of mineral springs declined. Lakeview was established in 1903 by another Bostonian, Harvey M. Holleman, and his local partner, Percy L. Gardner, as a lake resort around a venerable mill pond.
In comparison to a large, expensive, and professionally-designed resort such as Pinehurst, Lakeview represents a small, rustic lake resort of the type that has largely disappeared from the Moore County landscape. The Lakeview Company possessed a much smaller parcel of land and more limited vision and financial resources than did the Tufts family in Pinehurst. Lakeview's sole recreational amenity was Crystal Lake, in contrast to the more varied pleasures of tennis, casino life, horse riding and racing, and golf at Pinehurst. The identities of any architects and planners that may have laid out Lakeview and designed its early cottages are unknown, while extensive documentation exists for the nationally-prominent designers of Pinehurst, including New York City landscape architect, Frederick Law Olmsted. A picturesque boulevard was laid out around Crystal Lake, but the residential blocks consist of unimaginative gridded blocks quite unlike the charming curvilinear street plan of Pinehurst. Although the cottages built at Lakeview during the early twentieth century architecturally mimicked the nearby resort of Pinehurst of the same era, only a small number of them have survived. Generally modest in size, they reflect the popular Queen Anne, Shingle and Craftsman styles, as well as vernacular designs with store-bought millwork.
The resort communities of Pinehurst and Southern Pines remain prosperous today as golfing, horse breeding, and retirement communities, in contrast to the smaller resorts of Pinebluff, Jackson Springs, and Lakeview, which largely ceased to function as spas by the 1930s. Jackson Springs dried up when the main hotel burned in the 1930s. Soon the railway there was transporting more peaches from area fruit farms to market than people to the resort. As Lakeview's success was contingent on water activities, rather than golf, its popularity declined as beach resorts grew. Small spas such as Lakeview also could not compete with the golfing amenities of Pinehurst and Southern Pines. Lakeview does possess strong historical significance as the only small, rustic resort of the turn-of-the-century era in Moore County that still retains sufficient buildings and landscape design to convey its resort character.
McDuffie Map of Moore County, 1886, North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh.
Wellman, The County of Moore: 1847-1947, 83-84.
Wellman, The County of Moore: 1847-1947, 104, 108-110.
]McInnis, "A Brief History of Crystal Lake and Lakeview."
Lakeview Plat Map, 1903, in Moore County Map Book, North Carolina State Archives.
"Great Opening of Lakeview," Raleigh News and Observer, Aug. 30, 1903, 1.
Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation for the Lakeview Townsite Company, 1908, in Moore County Record of Corporations 1889-1924, State Archives.
"$10 for Lot in Brand New Lakeview of 1903," Southern Pines The Pilot, November 30, 1983, 1-E.
Moore County Deed Book 32, 287, 1905. Newcomb purchased the two lots to the rear, fronting on E. Park Street, in 1907 in order to create larger house grounds for himself (Moore County DB 37, 31).
"A Lakeside Winter Resort," Southern Pines Tourist, April 8, 1910.
"A Lakeside Winter Resort," Southern Pines Tourist, April 8, 1910.
"New Dam at Lakeview," newspaper article, name unknown, April 11, 1913. Clipping in collection of Moore County Library Historical Collection.
"Lakeview in Mourning," newspaper article, name unknown, 1911. Clipping in collection of Moore County Library Historical Collection.
Wellman, The County of Moore: 1847-1947, 140, 156, 177; Jerry Gulledge, interview by the authors, Lakeview, April 21, 1999.
Map of Lakeview drawn from map dated 1916, revised 1931, Moore County Map Book 2, page 11.
McInnis, "A Brief History of Crystal Lake and Lakeview," 5; Lease from Lakeview Recreation Co. to W.J. Harrington, cited in term paper, "Lakeview: Recreational Center of the Past," by Robert Duncan Watts, 1971 (copy in SHPO file).
Wellman, The County of Moore, 1847-1947, 176; Hood and Phillips, National Historic Landmark nomination for Pinehurst Historic District, 1995; Watts, "Lakeview: Recreational Center of the Past," 9.
Gladys Causey interview, Lakeview, April 21, 1999.
McInnis, "Brief History," 4.
Watts, "Lakeview: Recreational Center of the Past," 12.
Watts, "Lakeview: Recreational Center of the Past," 12; McInnis, "Brief History," 5.
McInnis, "Brief History," 5-6.
Sharpe, New Geography of North Carolina, I, 258; Wellman, The County of Moore 1847-1947, 104-108.
Wellman, The County of Moore 1847-1947, 108-112; Hood and Phillips, National Historic Landmark nomination of Pinehurst Historic District, 1995.
Hood and Phillips, Pinehurst NHL nomination.
Little and Kullen, Moore County Reconnaissance Survey Report, 1998. Copy at the North Carolina Historic Preservation Office.
Causey, Gladys. Interview by the authors, Lakeview, April 21, 1999.
Caviness, Leon. Interview by Kim Von Canon, Summer 1999.
"Great Opening at Lakeview," Raleigh News and Observer, August 30, 1903.
Gulledge, Jerry. Interview by the authors, Lakeview, April 21, 1999.
Hood, Davyd Foard and Phillips, Laura A. W. Pinehurst Historic District nomination for National Historic Landmark, designated in 1996. Copy at the North Carolina Historic Preservation Office.
"A Lakeside Winter Resort," Southern Pines Tourist, April 8, 1910.
Lakeview Historical Collection, miscellaneous newspaper clippings and typescripts in ownership of Crystal Lake "SUPPORT," Inc.
Little, M. Ruth and Kullen Michelle. "Results of the Moore County Reconnaissance Survey, Fall 1997,'' typescript on file at North Carolina Historic Preservation Office.
McInnis, Bill. "A Brief History of Crystal Lake and Lakeview." 1986. Typescript in Lakeview Historic District file, North Carolina Historic Preservation Office.
Moore County Deeds, Map Books, Tax Maps. Record of Corporations. North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, and Moore County Tax Office, Carthage, N.C.
Moore County Library Historical Collection, Carthage.
Sharpe, Bill. A New Geography of North Carolina. I (1954).
"$10 for Lot in Brand New Lakeview of 1903," The Pilot, Southern Pines, November 30, 1983.
Watts, Robert Duncan. "Lakeview: Recreational Center of the Past." 1971. Typescript in Lakeview Historic District file, North Carolina Historic Preservation Office.
† M. Ruth Little and Michelle Kullen, Longleaf Historic Resources, Lakeview Historic District, Moore County, NC, nomination document, 1999, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.