DeGraffenried Park Historic District
The DeGraffenried Park Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2011, The Gombach Group.
The compact six-block DeGraffenried Park Historic District is located about one mile west of central New Bern. The DeGraffenried Park Historic District is bounded by Neuse Boulevard on the north, Trent Boulevard on the south, Fort Totten Drive on the east, and Chattawka Lane on the west. Lucerne Way and Tryon Road are the interior east-west streets; Queen Anne Lane bisects the district from north to south. The small subdivision, platted in 1926, has grid-patterned blocks that contain fifty-seven houses. All but seven were built between 1926 and 1956 and contribute to the district's architectural character. Because the lots are large, each block generally contains only five or six houses, set well back from the street with large grassed front yards. The original landscape and street design of the subdivision includes several significant elements: wide medians, concrete sidewalks, and a group of concrete light poles with urn-shaped globes. The original concrete streets have been covered with asphalt, but the original concrete sidewalks are still in good condition. The extremely wide grassed median between the sidewalk and the street is an unusual landscape feature. Four historic concrete light poles are spaced along Queen Anne Lane. The northern two blocks of the DeGraffenried Park Historic District contain remnants of an old pecan orchard, the vestige of a land feature that was associated with the farm previously located on the property. The subdivision retains a high degree of integrity, both in its plan and in the architecture of its individual houses.
One striking feature that adds to the architectural harmony of the DeGraffenried Park Historic District is the large number of original, detached garages of frame or brick construction that match the houses. A number of these have upper-level apartments that were rented to military families during and after World War II. A total of fifty-one contributing houses and thirty-five contributing garages and sheds equals eighty-six contributing resources. The overall landscape and street design is counted as one contributing site. Six noncontributing houses and fifteen noncontributing outbuildings, as well as one swimming pool (structure) equals twenty-two noncontributing resources. Eighty percent of the resources contribute to the DeGraffenried Park Historic District's character.
The housing stock in the neighborhoods surrounding the DeGraffenried Park Historic District is completely different. To the east is Fort Totten Park, the site of a Civil War-period earthworks and now a city park. To the south is the Ghent neighborhood, developed in the early twentieth century with Colonial Revival, Foursquare, and Craftsman style houses. To the west and north are gridded blocks that were laid out in the late 1930s and developed from the 1940s to 1960s with small period cottages and small Ranch houses.
The historic houses in the DeGraffenried Park Historic District represent three phases of construction: initial development from 1927 to 1930; Depression and World War II-era development from 1930 to 1945; and postwar development 1945 to 1956. The initial development of the subdivision from its opening in 1926 to the bankruptcy of the developers during the Great Depression in 1929-1930 resulted in construction of ten houses scattered throughout the district. All but two of these houses are two-story, side-gable Colonial Revival style houses, generally of brick, with an ornate entrance and small entrance porch. Other typical features of these houses are flanking porch and sunroom wings and detached garages of similar design. One of the finest of the original dwellings is the Sara Elizabeth McWhorter House (ca.1930), 1508 Lucerne Way, with a bowed Corinthian entrance porch and a side porte-cochere with Corinthian columns. One of the largest early houses is the C. Walker Hodges House (ca.1927), 1601 Lucerne Way, a two and one-half-story brick house with a pedimented entrance, flat arches over the windows, and round-arched dormer windows in the attic. The exceptions to this dominant house type are the Ira V. Stephens House (ca.1928), 1608 Tryon Road, a one and one-half-story brick Dutch Colonial Revival style house; and the Mercer E. Tyson House (ca.1928), 1512 Trent Boulevard, a one and one-half-story frame Colonial Revival style house.
Lot sales in DeGraffenried Park continued during the Great Depression, and construction resumed by 1935 and continued through World War II. During the second half of the decade some thirteen houses were constructed. Mack Lupton, who owned a wholesale seafood processing plant in New Bern, purchased a large lot at 1510 Tryon Road in 1933. He hired local architect Raymond Fuson to design a grand brick Jacobethan Revival style house with steep front gables, stone trim, recessed porches, and bands of metal casement windows. The Lupton House is New Bern's finest expression of this late-medieval revival architecture. Four late-1930s houses exhibit the two-story Colonial Revival style. These are the Taylor House, Aarons House, Aberly House, and Daniel House. The Burke Taylor House (ca.1937), 1601 Neuse Boulevard, is a brick house with a full two-story front portico. The Aaron Aarons House (ca.1937), 1602 Lucerne Way, is a brick house that is the DeGraffenried Park Historic District's finest revival version of the two-story Federal style side-hall plan house, a popular form in the early nineteenth century streets of old New Bern. The John M. Aberly, Jr. House, 1502 Tryon Road, and the Louis B. Daniel House, 1504 Tryon Road, are two-story brick Colonial Revival style houses built about 1939. The ca.1935 D. Johnson Lewis House, 1603 Tryon Road, is a picturesque one and one-half story brick Tudor cottage. The ca.1937 DeWitt C. McCotter, Jr. House, 1509 Lucerne Way, is one of the most architecturally distinctive houses in the DeGraffenried Park Historic District because it is a rare Craftsman design. The sprawling frame Craftsman style house features a wide front center cross-gable, an entrance sheltered by a bracketed hood, and flanking side porches. A group of three brick one-and-one-half story Bungalows and Tudor Revival style houses at 1509, 1511, and 1513 Neuse Boulevard were built in the mid-to-late 1930s. The finest Bungalow is the Reeves-Orringer House (ca.1939), 1513 Neuse Boulevard, of brick with a wraparound porch with a solid, ramped brick balustrade and large, tripartite picture windows.
At least eight houses were constructed during the war. All but one are one-and-one-half story frame Colonial Revival style cottages with asbestos siding. These are the Hugh B. Mills, Sr. House, 1501 Lucerne Way; the Louis G. Badham House, 1502 Lucerne Way; the J.W. Fox House, 1609 Lucerne Way; the James W. Williamson House, 1610 Lucerne Way; the Peter D. Chagaris House, 1504 Trent Boulevard; the Clyde Everhart House, 1606 Trent Boulevard; and the Mrs. Columbia Deppe House and Leland Mason House at 1612 and 1614 Trent Boulevard.
During the decade after World War II, the final period of the district's development, twenty-one houses were constructed. All but four of the remaining lots in the subdivision were developed during this decade. The postwar houses are a variety of forms, namely the traditional two-story brick or frame Colonial Revival style houses that defined the subdivision since the 1920s, smaller one-and-one-half story Colonial Revival style houses, Cape Cod style dwellings of brick or frame, and two large Ranch houses, one built in 1950, the other about 1956. Most were erected within a few years of the end of World War II, since they are listed in the first post-war New Bern City Directory of 1948. The finest of the traditional two-story Colonial Revival style group is the Dr. F.P. King House, 1603 Lucerne Way, constructed of Flemish bond brick walls, a side-hall plan, an arched entrance, and windows with flat arches. The Colonial Revival style houses are both large and small. The 1949 Ronald W. Ipock House, 1505 Lucerne Way, and the ca.1950 Slater-Patterson House, 1507 Tryon Road, are sprawling brick one and one-half story houses. The Ipock House, built by contractor Jack Aberly, features bands of wooden casement windows in the front, and an entrance hood set on iron brackets. The Slater-Patterson House features a front-facing two-story wing whose first story is a cutaway brick bay window. The classical entrance is sheltered by an engaged porch.
The small group of houses built after the end of the period of significance, in 1956, represent a variety of styles and types, including a brick Ranch house, several two-story brick Colonial Revival style houses, a reproduction low country house set on a raised basement, and a vernacular frame house built about 1991. The compatible scale, materials, and setback of these later houses allow them to blend inconspicuously into the historic streetscapes of the DeGraffenried Park Historic District.
Most of the DeGraffenried Park Historic District's contributing houses are generally unaltered. A few have replacement sash windows. A number of the frame houses have vinyl siding, but it is applied in a manner that replicates the appearance of wood siding. One pre-1956 house, 1507 Neuse Boulevard, built ca.1948, is noncontributing because all of its exterior fabric has been replaced.
The DeGraffenried Park Historic District, a six-block subdivision opened in 1926 by Fort Totten Incorporated, is the most exclusive pre-World War II suburb in New Bern. All but a handful of its fifty-seven houses were built from 1927 to ca.1956 along its grid-patterned streets . These streets — Tryon Road, Fort Totten Drive, Lucerne Way, Trent Boulevard, Neuse Boulevard, Queen Anne Lane, and Chattawka Lane — are named for the geography and early history of New Bern, one of the state's oldest towns. DeGraffenried Park's houses are predominantly Colonial Revival in style, a testament to the identification of the city's citizens with New Bern's illustrious Georgian and Federal style architecture. Over one-third of the houses follow the classic two-story form with side-gable roof and a decorative entrance with gracious classical-inspired entrance porch. The neighborhood's preference for this style continued through the first half of the 1950s, a decade when the Ranch house became nearly ubiquitous elsewhere. The DeGraffenried Park Historic District meets National Register significance in the area of community planning and development within the city of New Bern and also for the architectural significance of its well-preserved Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, and Craftsman houses. Its few post-1956 resources are not exceptionally significant.
In October, 1926, the subdivision plat of DeGraffenried Park was registered in the town of New Bern. The forty-two acre tract had been the farm of John Amos Jones, who lived in a large old house on Broad Street in central New Bern. Jones cultivated a pecan orchard and tobacco on the tract of land located one mile west of the city center. An article in the May 19, 1927 edition of the New Bernian described it as one of the city's finest new suburbs:
DE GRAFFENRIED PARK — BE AMONG THE BEST
New Community Will Spring Up in Beautiful Site: Highly Restricted
The growth of any community ordinarily is measured by the extent to which its surrounding territory is developed for homes and for purposes of business. Each new subdivision for any city means that that city is on the upgrade, and that its people are progressive and desire expansion.
New Bern now has DeGraffenried Park, one of the finest subdivisions ever set up in this part of the state. J.S. Miller and Son are selling agents for the property, and Edward Tucker is sales manager. Mr. Tucker's task is a comparatively easy one, because it has not been difficult to sell lots in this excellent location.
The name of this new subdivision is reminiscent of the pioneers who settled New Bern. The subdivision was opened Armistice Day, 1926, and is the first of its kind put over in this section. It has concrete streets, 18 feet wide, with five-foot concrete side-walks, and the majority of the home sites are 100 by 160 feet in dimensions. It has city water, and all conveniences of the city, being located about one mile from the heart of New Bern.
The subdivision was situated between New Bern's main corridor of Broad Street (U.S. Highway 70) on the north and Trent Boulevard (U.S. Highway 17) on the south. Broad Street's name changed to Neuse Boulevard at End Street, the early twentieth century city limits. The Civil War-period earthworks at Fort Totten were located on the east side of the new subdivision. The early twentieth century suburb of Ghent, New Bern's only streetcar suburb, is situated to the south of DeGraffenried Park across Trent Boulevard. The subdivision name and the street names of Tryon Road, Lucerne Way, Chattawka Lane, and Queen Anne Lane were chosen by the developer to associate them to New Bern's history as one of North Carolina's most important colonial and early Federal-era towns. New Bern was established in 1710 by a colony of Swiss and German Palatines, led by Baron Christoph von Graffenried, on the point of land formed by the confluence of the Neuse and Trent rivers called "Chattoke." The new settlement was named for the colony's home town of Bern, Switzerland. Colonial Governor William Tryon built the colony's first permanent capital, Tryon Palace, in New Bern in the late 1760s.
The legal entity of Fort Totten Inc. was the developer of the new subdivision. The original subdivision plat (Craven County Plat Book 1, page 91) was drawn by Clodfelder & Schisler, civil engineers and landscape architects of Morehead City (with main offices in Cocoa, Florida; Richmond, Virginia; and Virginia Beach, Virginia.) The subdivision was divided into nine blocks, with twenty-five-foot-wide lots numbered consecutively in each block. (Three blocks were located on the north side of Neuse Boulevard. These are not included in the DeGraffenried Park Historic District because they did not develop until after the period of significance). The plat notes that a space of six feet on each side of the rear property line is reserved for utilities.
The developers intended for the inner streets of Lucerne Way and Tryon Road to be developed with larger dwellings on bigger lots than the outer streets of Trent and Neuse boulevards. In earlier historical eras, houses fronting main avenues such as Neuse and Trent Boulevards would have been the largest and most stylish in the neighborhood. The developers must have viewed the interior, more private streets of Lucerne Way and Tryon Road as the most desirable section of the subdivision. The standard deed of conveyance for lots includes the restriction that dwellings erected on the interior streets shall have a minimum frontage of one hundred feet and minimum cost of $4,500; and houses erected on Neuse or Trent Boulevards shall have a minimum frontage of seventy-five feet and a minimum cost of $3,000. This pattern was followed as the neighborhood developed.
Most of the lots on Neuse and Trent Boulevards are narrower, with smaller houses, than those on Lucerne Way and Tryon Road, although several of the oldest and largest houses arose on the boulevards in the late 1920s and 1930s.
All but a handful of the subdivision's fifty-seven houses were built from 1927 to the mid-1950s, when almost all available lots had been developed. Sixteen lots were sold from 1927 to 1929 prior to the stock market crash, and ten houses were built in the subdivision at this time. Eight of them are two-story brick or weatherboarded Colonial Revival style houses. The original owners include William H. Purser, assistant postmaster; Sara Elizabeth McWhorter; John W. Burton, in real estate; C. Walker Hodges, owner of a dredging company; Ira Stephens, a bookkeeper; William Dowdy, president of Dowdy Furniture Company; and Kenneth R. Jones, a salesman. The earliest houses were scattered evenly throughout the new subdivision's streets.
Fort Totten Inc. went into bankruptcy in 1931, yet lots continued to be sold with no interruption throughout the 1930s. Forty-one lots were sold from 1930 to 1939, when Fort Totten Inc. apparently ceased to exist. Owners who could afford to construct houses during the Depression built houses as sizeable and stylish as those built prior to the stock market crash. One of the first Depression houses is the splendid two-story brick Jacobethan Revival style house built for Mack Lupton at 1510 Tryon Road. Lupton, owner of a wholesale seafood processing plant, purchased his lot in 1933, and hired architect Raymond Fuson to design his imposing house. But most new residents continued the two-story Colonial Revival style tradition begun in the late 1920s in DeGraffenried Park. Salesman Aaron Aarons bought a lot at 1602 Lucerne Way in 1935 and constructed a large brick Colonial Revival style house whose side-hall plan reflects a particular Federal era house plan characteristic of New Bern. Burke Taylor, owner of Taylor Motor Company, bought a large lot at 1601 Neuse Boulevard in 1937 and constructed a large brick Colonial Revival style house with a full portico reminiscent of a southern plantation house. D. Johnson Lewis, an engineer with the Norfolk-Southern Railway, bought a lot at 1603 Tryon Road in 1935 and built a substantial brick Tudor Revival style cottage. W. Reginald Lowery, manager of Taylor Motor Company, constructed a frame Cape Cod style house for himself about 1935 at 1510 Trent Boulevard. Attorney Dewitt McCotter Jr. bought a lot at 1509 Lucerne Way in 1937 and built a large weatherboarded one-and-one-half-story house that is unusual for its low-key Craftsman design in the predominantly Colonial Revival style subdivision. Henry G. Reeves, freight agent at the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, apparently built the substantial brick Bungalow at 1513 Neuse Boulevard in the late 1930s.
During World War II, from 1941 to 1945, New Bern was a thriving city due to the activity at nearby Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station in Havelock. The war-time population of New Bern swelled with the families of Marines stationed at Cherry Point and with government employees and contractors and their families. At least eight new houses were built in DeGraffenried Park, and a number of the homeowners added or adapted space within their houses or their garages to create apartments for Marines stationed at Cherry Point and their families. Contractor B.G. Hines, owner of New Bern Building and Supply, built four of the new houses for speculative sale — all are one and one-half-story Colonial Revival style cottages with asbestos siding. They are located at 1609 and 1610 Lucerne Way and 1612 and 1614 Trent Boulevard. Hines built a similar house at 1502 Lucerne Way as a custom dwelling for salesman Louis Badham. During the war Clyde Everhart, owner of Everhart's Meat Market, built a house at 1606 Trent Boulevard that has Tudor features instead of Colonial Revival.
Approximately twenty houses were built in DeGraffenried Park from the end of the war to the mid-1950s, when nearly all of the available lots had been developed. Contractor Jack Aberly built one of the finest of the postwar houses for Ronald Ipock, owner of a supermarket, at 1505 Lucerne Way in 1949. The large, rambling one-story brick house with a finished half-story has picturesque bracketed entrance hoods at the front and side, and bands of metal casement windows in the facade. Businessmen, attorneys, doctors, and local government officials built homes during the final phase of the subdivision's development.
Since 1956, five houses have been built in the district, most in revivals of southern architectural styles. At 1503 Tryon Road the Pate family built a brick Ranch house with Colonial Revival details about 1968. In 1976 Mrs. Jernigan constructed a house in the Colonial Revival style at 1510 Lucerne Way. She recycled the brick from her grandfather's 1903 warehouse in the center of New Bern for the walls. In the 1990s Centenary United Methodist Church constructed a parsonage at 1602 Tryon Road. The Colonial Revival style brick residence fits harmoniously into the Tryon Road streetscape. Floyd Gaskins Jr. had a reproduction of a low country plantation house built in the 1990s at 1506 Tryon Road. The frame house rests on a raised brick basement. Local architect Billy Faulkenberry designed a frame house for the Wright family at 1606 Tryon Road during the decade. The form of the house reflects vernacular dwellings of the early twentieth century.
Community Planning and Development and Architecture Context: New Bern, 1927-1956
North Carolina's earliest suburban development occurred between the 1890s and 1930. During that time all large towns and many small towns expanded with suburban neighborhoods. In their general layouts and in the scale and style of individual houses, these suburbs represent conservative, comfortable versions of national movements in planning and architecture. Even the relatively small town of New Bern grew outside of its nineteenth century boundaries with Riverside in the 1890s and the streetcar suburb of Ghent in 1906. However the most affluent suburb in New Bern was DeGraffenried Park, which opened in 1926.
The DeGraffenried Park Historic District is listed on the National Register in the area of community planning and development for its significance as New Bern's most exclusive early twentieth century suburb. The district is also listed for its local architectural significance as a large, distinctive group of Colonial Revival houses of the second quarter of the twentieth century, the height of popularity of this revivalist mode. A small number of Bungalows, Tudor Revival style houses, and Ranches stand in the district.
With its expansive streets, sidewalks, medians, and large lots, DeGraffenried Park was the city's most exclusive subdivision prior to World War II. Development in the neighborhood defied the economic building cycles of the 1930s and 1940s because lot purchases and house construction continued during most of the Great Depression and throughout World War II. One reason for the city's comparative vigor during these periods of national building lulls may have been New Bern's status as the center of North Carolina's lumber industry. In the late 1800s and early 1900s the city's industrialists amassed vast fortunes by processing the timber resources of the coastal region and shipping the sawn lumber to distant ports. Residents and builders in DeGraffenried Park such as John Aberly, owner of City Lumber Company, and B.G. Hines, owner of New Bern Building & Supply Company would have had easier access to building materials than most homeowners. Another reason was the infusion of federal government assistance during World War II to meet the housing shortage around Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station. The government subsidized the construction of the Colonial Heights and Greek Park subdivisions in New Bern. These were subdivisions of small houses for employees at Cherry Point. DeGraffenried Park is a physical expression of New Bern's economic vitality and love of its colonial past during the early and mid-twentieth century.
New Bern's status as the largest town and the leading port in North Carolina in the first two decades of the 1800s contributed to the construction of exceptionally handsome dwellings, many of which still stand (New Bern Historic District, 1973). New Bern townhouses were often built with a side-hall plan, Flemish-bond brickwork with rubbed-brick flat arches, and entrances with intricate classical details such as traceried fanlights and swan's neck pediments with urn or pineapple finials. Gable ends were often illuminated with lunette windows. This house type was the type of choice for New Bern's wealthy from the late 1700s until the 1820s. The James Bryan House, 605 Pollock Street, built in 1803-1805, is prototypical. It features Flemish bond brick walls, openings with brick flat arches, an entrance with an Adamesque fanlight, and a Palladian-influenced portico with a vaulted pediment, a fine cornice, and slender paired colonettes. Other examples include the Isaac Taylor House, 228 Craven Street, built ca.1792 and the Eli Smallwood House, 524 East Front Street, ca.1812. Their entrance porticos have arched ceilings and slender turned columns associated with Renaissance architect Palladio. Although only a few of DeGraffenried Park's Colonial Revival style houses emulate this side-hall form, the dominance of the general style in the subdivision is proof of the attachment to the city's colonial past.
The dominant residential area in the nineteenth century was the center city extending from Broad Street north to Johnson and King streets. It remained fashionable in the early 1900s for leading merchants and industrialists. During this era New Bernians built nationally popular versions of the Queen Anne and Neoclassical Revival style, and the Bungalow and Foursquare house forms. As elsewhere in the United States, the Colonial Revival style became increasingly popular for residential architecture during the 1920s in New Bern. A few distinguished examples of the style were built in the old city center, such as the Clyde Eby House, 222 Broad Street. This 1925 dwelling is a two-story brick house built from a plan in Ideal Homes of Today, a plan book by Atlanta architect Leila Ross Wilburn. The gambrel-roof Dutch Colonial Revival style was also popular in New Bern during the decade. An example is the Dr. William Hand Sr. House, 216 Johnson Street, built about 1926.
New Bern's first two suburbs were Riverside and Ghent. Riverside (National Register Historic District, 1988), developed in the 1890s along National Avenue and the Neuse River to the north of the city, has grid-patterned blocks densely built up with a mixture of Queen Anne/Colonial Revival style houses, Bungalows, and Colonial Revival detailed Foursquares. Ghent (National Register Historic District, 1988) was platted in 1906 on the south side of Trent Boulevard between First Street and Seventh Street, and connected to the city center by a street railway system. Targeted at middle and upper-middle class homeowners, lots were generally 50 x 150 feet in size. Deed restrictions specified a minimum house cost of $2,000. One hundred and fifty houses were built in Ghent between 1912 and the 1930s. One of the suburb's main attractions was the amusement park located at the end of the trolley line on the south side of the neighborhood, which included a baseball field and a casino. The houses of Ghent follow nationally popular house styles and types of Colonial Revival, Bungalow, and Foursquare.
DeGraffenried Park, the third and last major suburb of New Bern, is located just north of Ghent. It is smaller and more exclusive, with wider streets, larger minimum lot sizes, and a higher minimum house cost. Although its streets have a grid pattern, the character of the plan is more of an elite suburban neighborhood with houses set far back on large lots, with a wide median between the sidewalk and the street. New Bern's largest group of 1920s-1930s Colonial Revival houses line the quiet streets. These are relatively simple two-story brick or frame houses with hipped or gable roofs and academic Colonial Revival style details applied primarily to entrances and entrance porticos. The owners were doctors, lawyers, lumber merchants, industrialists and white-collar workers.
Like the Eby House on Broad Street in the city center, most of the district's houses were probably built from stock plans. The only architect known to have worked in the district during its period of significance is Raymond Fuson, designer of the Jacobethan Revival house at 1510 Tryon Road in 1935. Only a few of DeGraffenried Park's Colonial Revivals appear to be based on New Bern's own elite Federal-era building form — the two-story side-hall plan with an elegant entrance portico. The house built at 1602 Lucerne Way about 1937 for Aaron Aarons, with its stretcher bond brick walls with quoined corners, a side-hall entrance with a fanlight, and an arched entrance portico with fluted columns, has the general form but lacks the delicacy of detail. Not until the 1950s did architects and builders reproduce the ornate craftsmanship of New Bern's colonial houses. This academic architecture likely stemmed from the enormous attention focused on the reconstruction of Tryon Palace, the colonial governor's mansion that was built in 1767-1770, burned in 1798, and carefully reconstructed from the original plans from 1952 to 1959 by architect William Graves Perry of Boston. An example of this attention to detail in DeGraffenried Park is the Dr. King House, 1603 Lucerne Way, built ca.1956 with Flemish bond brick walls, brick flat arches, and an elegant round-arched entrance with paneled reveal and fluted pilasters.
Bishir, Catherine and Lawrence S. Earley. Early Twentieth-Century Suburbs in North Carolina. N.C. Raleigh: Department of Cultural Resources, 1985.
Craven County Deed Books. North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh.
Craven County Plat Book 1, 91: DeGraffenried Park Subdivision Plat. Craven County Courthouse.
Foster, Marea Kafer, owner of 1504 Lucerne Way, library assistant, Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library. Interview and manuscript corrections, December 2005.
Jernigan, Mrs., owner of 1510 Lucerne Way. Interview by author, November 2005.
Mason, Mrs. Leland, owner of 1614 Trent Road. Interview by Marea Kafer Foster, December 2005.
Mills, Hugh Bryan Jr., owner of 1501 Lucerne Way. Interview by Marea Kafer Foster, December 2005.
Mitchell, Julia Guion, granddaughter of John Amos Jones. Interview by Marea Kafer Foster, December 2005.
New Bern City Directory of 1937. Published by Baldwin. Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library.
New Bern City Directory of 1941. Published by Miller. Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library.
New Bern City Directory of 1948. Published by Mullin-Kille. Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library.
New Bern City Directory of 1958. Published by Hill. Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library.
Sanborn Maps, New Bern, N.C. 1931 and 1948. Sanborn Map Co., Inc. Kellenberger Room, New Bern Public Library.
Sandbeck, Peter. The Historic Architecture of New Bern and Craven County. New Bern, N.C.: The Tryon Palace Commission, 1988.
Stone, Annette, owner of 1606 Lucerne Way and City Planner, City of New Bern. Interview by Ruth Little, November 2005.
Watson, Alan. A History of New Bern and Craven County. New Bern, N.C.: The Tryon Palace Commission, 1987.
†l M. Ruth Little, Longleaf Historic Resources, DeGraffenried Park Historic District, Craven County, NC, nomination document, 2005, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.