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Maple Avenue Historic District


The Maple Avenue Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2011, The Gombach Group.

Description

Located in one of the oldest areas of Hannibal, the Maple Avenue Historic District is a late 19th and early 20th century residential area of 175 resources, four of which are already listed on the National Register (Ebert-Dulany House, Rockcliffe, and the Eighth and Center Street Baptist Church, which includes both the church and parsonage). The Maple Avenue Historic District includes 129 residences (with 41 outbuildings), two churches, and a school property. In addition to the four listed resources, the Maple Avenue Historic District contains 148 contributing and 23 noncontributing properties. The Maple Avenue Historic District borders on the western edge of the original town site, seven blocks from the Mississippi River. It is roughly bounded by Broadway on the south, Eighth Street on the east, Section Street on the west and North Street on the north. Because of the steep topography, the streets rise sharply to the north and west toward the top of the bluff, mandating some unique features of the district such as steep inclines in front yards, tall stone retaining walls, steep steps up from the public sidewalks, shallow front yards, basement level walkouts on the backs of houses, and the irregular spacing of houses due to steep cliffs. In addition, because of the continued popularity of the neighborhood for nearly a century, the development led to the close spacing of houses. Often the houses do not share a common setback, in part due to the topography. Few houses have driveways. The neighborhood consists primarily of single family residences ranging from simple cottages to palatial mansions. The houses tend to have unique floorplans, with only a few examples of the popular, vernacular plans (such as American Foursquare). Because of the concentration of development in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the most popular styles are those of the Late Victorian era (primarily Italianate, Second Empire, Queen Anne and Folk Victorian), and variations of the Colonial Revival style. One characteristic of the Maple Avenue Historic District is the tendency for homeowners to update the stylistic features of their houses, often by modifying the front porch with different stylistic features. Most such alterations are historic, and integrity is relatively high overall as indicated by the strong ratio of contributing to noncontributing properties.

General Features of the District

The Maple Avenue Historic District rises sharply north of Broadway, the main arterial street that parallels the district's south boundary. Broadway, which runs east to Main Street along the Mississippi River, has always served as the major commercial thoroughfare connecting the riverfront, central business district and governmental offices with the residential and industrial areas in the western part of Hannibal, as well as serving as the earliest highway to nearby communities. The historic central business district and original town site are located in the seven blocks paralleling the Mississippi River, which forms a narrow river valley north of the mouth of Bear Creek. This area is surrounded by a series of steep bluffs, with the ridges and hillside of the Maple Avenue Historic District rising more than 140 feet from the old portion of the business district along Main Street in the valley below. Between this business district and the Maple Avenue Historic District lies an earlier residential area dominated by mid-to-late nineteenth century, middle and upper-class homes known as the Central Park Historic District (Listed on the National Register, 10/7/82). Beyond the district boundaries on the north and west sides, the hillside once again drops drastically downhill, visually separating the residential area from its surroundings, which are characterized by wooded hillsides and smaller, less densely built up housing.

The Maple Avenue Historic District generally begins at the alley line north of Broadway, with the primary streets parallel to Broadway: Center, Bird, and then Hill Streets. North Street serves as the northern boundary, although there are no houses along this street, because of the steep drop downhill from the ridge along Hill Street. From the east side of the district, at Dulany Street, these primary streets actually angle west southwest, creating an elbow where they turn due west along Maple Avenue, which serves as the major access point into the neighborhood from Braodway. Stillwell Place is actually an extension of Maple Avenue from Bird to Hill Streets. The western boundary of the district is generally Section Street, aptly named since it was the section line. Other intersecting streets, such as Dulany (formerly Draper Alley between Seventh Street and Eighth Street), Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Streets extend only one or two blocks north of Broadway into the district, due to the steep incline up to the 40-foot cliff on the north side of Bird Street. Because of the steep topography, the streets in the neighborhood rise sharply to the north and west, with many houses on the north sides of the streets elevated from the street by tall stone retaining walls, while those on the south side often have full basement level walkouts. Most houses are closely spaced, with shallow front yards. Often the houses do not share a common setback, in part due to the topography. Few houses have driveways; rather, the old carriage houses, detached garages, and basement level garages are accessed from alleys.

The William Ittner designed Central School is situated on the hillside, in the middle of the neighborhood. Rockcliffe Mansion (Listed on the National Register), designed by Barnett, Haynes and Barnett, is positioned on top of the 40-foot cliff along Bird Street, behind the school. Together, these two buildings designed, by nationally prominent architects from St. Louis, serve as dual, tiered focal points for the neighborhood. With its back entrances adjacent to Bird Street, the front of Central School looks out over the neighborhood, elevated above the rock retaining wall that drops down nearly 20 feet to the broad, sloping lawn that spans the half block to the stone wall and steps along Center Street. Both command views of the Maple Avenue Historic District, the historic city, and the river below.

In addition, the Maple Avenue Historic District includes two visually prominent church buildings. Located at the corner of Broadway and Eleventh Street, the Pilgrim Congregation Church building anchors the block of residences along what is predominantly a commercial street. The other, named for its location, the Eighth and Center Street Baptist Church (Listed on the National Register), prominently identifies the east end of the district along Center Street, which serves as the major east to west street in the neighborhood since it is less steeply graded than the others.

The Maple Avenue Historic District neighborhood is almost exclusively residential. Generally, the simpler and smaller houses are located near the perimeter of the district, except for the buildings actually facing Broadway, between Eleventh and Maple, since they are prominently located and steeply elevated above the thoroughfare. This was not always the case, however, since some of the simplest vernacular types were adjacent to larger, more elaborate, examples of the popular period style houses. Besides the two churches and the school building, the vast majority of the 132 properties in the neighborhood are residential and most (113) are single family residences. Interspersed throughout the neighborhood are 13 double houses in an array of popular styles. Their design utilizes a symmetrical and elongated facade and a common, shared wall, and sheltering two families. In addition, the Maple Avenue Historic District includes three flats, which were always identified as such on the fire insurance maps. Associated with these residences are 39 detached garages and four carriage houses. Unlike other neighborhoods in Hannibal and in other Midwestern communities, the Maple Avenue Historic District contains only a few examples of popular house plans: one shotgun house, one Bungalow, and only 11 examples of Foursquare plans, less than 10 percent of the total. In contrast, the houses in this neighborhood usually have unique floorplans.

The neighborhood includes the grand Neoclassical mansion of Rockcliffe, the elaborate Italianate design of the Sumner T. McKnight House and the palatial, Georgian Revival style of Cliffside; all perched high along the ridge above the cliff. However, this residential area has historically included numerous examples of simpler, vernacular types that reveal little stylistic influences. Between these extremes, the vast majority of the buildings represent styles popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, with varying degrees of complexity. The most popular styles are those of the Late Victorian era: Italianate, Second Empire, and Queen Anne, as well as Folk Victorian designs, which total 61 houses about evenly represented among these styles. In addition, there are a few other examples of less popular Late Victorian styles, including three Shingle style and one Stick style house as well as the two Romanesque Revival churches. There are also 17 examples of Colonial Revival designs, although there is only one other Georgian Revival style house, besides Cliffside, since most Colonial Revival houses are simpler examples of this style. Early twentieth century styles are also represented, the most popular being the 12 houses utilizing Prairie style features and the six with Craftsman influences. At least one house seems to be a late example of the Adamesque version of the Federal style and one stretches its Craftsman features in a form known as Minimal Traditional, a transitional style leading into the popular, post-World War II Ranch style homes.

This variety in stylistic influences reflects the long period of development for the neighborhood, with large groups of new homes added to the district at regular intervals. The first buildings in the area were isolated houses built on the outskirts of the young settlement of Hannibal, at least as early as the 1830s. While there are at least four houses that appear to date prior to 1869, the oldest verifiable date of construction is 1850-1852 and most of the earliest houses have been replaced with later houses as the area developed its true residential character. Dates of construction for the current buildings in the Maple Avenue Historic District are, by decade: 1850s — one, 1860s — one; 1870s — eight; 1880s — 26; 1890s — 27; 1900s — 27; 1910s — 15; 1920s — five; and 1930s — one. In addition, because research could only identify spans of years for some houses, four others were built in the period from 1873 through 1892, five others were built sometime between 1906 and 1913, and one was built between 1913 and 1924. Besides the three known to have been built before 1869, there were eight others built sometime prior to 1900 and one built sometime prior to 1913 that cannot be accurately dated.

One of the unique features of the Maple Avenue Historic District, unlike many of the other old neighborhoods in Hannibal, is that due to its continued popularity over a long period of time, many property owners opted to update the style of their house, rather than move or rebuild. Thus 32 of the houses have had some stylistic modification to the facade, most often with new porches that replaced the original, smaller, Late Victorian porches with larger, Colonial Revival, Craftsman or Prairie style porches. More extreme facade updates were utilized in some cases, once by totally remodeling the Late Victorian design into a large, half-timbered, Tudor Revival house. In another case, the roofline was lowered to convert a Shingle style edifice into a lower height, Shingle style residence that shared many of the features of Queen Anne designs. These alterations were not a feature of the district after it had lost its popularity or even after construction had stopped in the neighborhood. Rather, this was a pattern consistent throughout its history, during its period of significance, and many of these alterations occurred at the height of new construction in the neighborhood during the 1906-1913 era. During that period, 34 new houses were built and 17 houses had face-lifts. Also, in some significant cases, earlier homes were replaced with new houses on the same property, again, a pattern that began early in the neighborhood's history when the McDonald farmhouse was demolished to make room for the McKnight House, which was later moved to allow for the construction of Rockcliffe. This same pattern also occurred on the school property as well as on less significant residential properties and continued through the 1930s, after which the neighborhood saw no significant alterations or additions for over 40 years.

By the late 1970s the Maple Avenue Historic District had declined in popularity, leading to a lack of adequate maintenance and pressure for redevelopment for the commercial area along Broadway that began to be evident in the loss of integrity of the historic district, especially around its periphery. Most notably, the two blocks between Ninth and Eleventh Streets along Broadway lost all remaining residential buildings, which were demolished to allow for the expansion of commercial operations, to create new parking lots, and to construct two large apartment buildings. Within the Maple Avenue Historic District's boundaries, 10 buildings have been demolished due to severe deterioration, or were lost because of fires, and three became parking lots (one for the school and the other two for the apartment buildings along Broadway). Some houses have lost decorative details in recent years, due to the application of vinyl siding and some of the brick homes have been painted. Recent porch alterations have been limited, and only a few enclosed (usually on the upper level porch). Where porch details are missing it usually resulted from deferred maintenance, which resulted in rotting columns or railings that were lost. Some porch columns have been replaced with temporary bracing or wrought iron posts (which are visually lacking in mass). However, several recent historic rehabilitation projects have actually utilized historic photographs to recreate missing porch details. While several buildings in the Maple Avenue Historic District are in terrible condition and two officially condemned, many have been lovingly maintained by their owners. Others are being carefully restored by new owners, such as the Ebert-Dulany House (1000 Center Street, Listed on the National Register), the Hogg House (1016 Center Street), the McVeigh House (1020 Center Street), the McIntyre House (1019 Bird Street), the Settles House (225 Maple Avenue), and the Clayton House (9 Stillwell Place). Even the three striking estates on top of the cliff have all experienced a rebirth in recent years: Rockcliffe (1000 Bird Street, Listed on the National Register), which had been closed for over 40 years has been repaired and reopened as a house museum; the McKnight House (1001 Hill Street), which had been under-utilized and underfunded in the hands of the local arts council is now being carefully restored by its new homeowners; and Cliffside, which had a stint as a nursing home, has been restored to its former splendor.

The Maple Avenue Historic District now includes 175 buildings on 132 separate properties. Central School and both church buildings are contributing to the district, although the Eighth and Center Street Baptist Church is already listed on the National Register. There are 129 residential buildings (113 single family houses, 13 double houses, three flats). Of these residences, three are already listed on the National Register (Ebert-Dulany House, Rockcliffe Mansion, and the parsonage for the Eighth and Center Streets Baptist Church). Of the remaining 126 residential buildings, 115 are contributing, while 11 are noncontributing. In addition, there are 43 outbuildings, (four carriage houses, 39 garages). Of these, 31 are contributing and 12 are noncontributing (all garages, located at the back of the properties and less visible). This totals 148 contributing buildings, four additional National Register listed properties (Ebert-Dulany House, Rockcliffe Mansion, and both the church and parsonage of the Eighth and Center Streets Baptist Church), and 23 noncontributing buildings in the district.

Significance

The Maple Avenue Historic District in Hannibal, Marion County, is locally significant under in the area of Architecture. The Maple Avenue Historic District embodies much of the architectural history of Hannibal; its period of development spans more than a century. Situated along the top and sides of one of Hannibal's major bluffs, the Maple Avenue Historic District forms a distinctive visual unit. It contains 175 resources of which 148 (plus the 4 National Register properties) contribute to its character. The area encompassed by the district has long been considered the most prestigious neighborhood in Hannibal, and Maple Avenue Historic District's fine collection of primarily 19th and early 20th century architecture includes four resources previously listed in the National Register. The oldest house dates from circa 1850 and the last house was built in 1939. Maple Avenue Historic District architecture ranges from simple cottages to palatial mansions. Because of the concentration of development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the predominant formal styles are Italianate, Queen Anne, Second Empire and Colonial Revival. With one exception, all of the primary resources were built prior to 1930 and only a few garages were constructed after 1950. Development in the Maple Avenue Historic District centered around Central School, one of the earliest public schools in Hannibal; the predominantly placed school site had been in continuous use for nearly 120 years. The present Central School was designed by renowned school architect William B. Ittner and dates from 1923. In addition to Hannibal's social elite, the neighborhood was a popular choice with the community's aspiring middle class and community leaders, ranging from business owners to managers and foremen representing most of Hannibal's commercial and industrial establishments. The period of significance, 1850-1950, brackets the years of construction.

Contextual Development

Named for one of its major access routes, Maple Avenue, the residential Maple Avenue Historic District is located just west of the original Hannibal town plat which consists of the first seven blocks extending west from the Mississippi River. The 175 resources within the Maple Avenue Historic District consist of 113 single family residences, 13 double houses, three flats, one school, two churches, four carriage houses/stables, and 39 garages. More than any other neighborhood in Hannibal, the Maple Avenue Historic District is defined by its topography. The Maple Avenue Historic District is characterized by steeply sloping lots, cliffs, and undulating street patterns. The current Central School building at 906 Center Street is elevated on the hillside, and backs up to the face of a 40 foot cliff which is capped by the community's three most significant mansions:

• Rockcliffe (1000 Bird Street, listed on the National Register, 9/18/80) was designed by Barnett, Haynes and Barnett as the grand Neoclassical mansion built in 1899-1900 for lumber magnate John J. Cruikshank Jr. It is located on the former site of the Sumner T. McKnight House (see below). It in turn had been built on the site of the former Adams style home of Edward C. McDonald, who had been one of Hannibal's earliest businessmen and attorneys. McDonald's Oak Hill farm was an early social center for the community and his large estate was subdivided in the mid-nineteenth century, to form what is now much of the Maple Avenue Historic District.

• Sumner T. McKnight House (1001 Hill Street) was built in 1877-78, as the elaborate, Italianate style home of a wealthy lumberman, by Hannibal's most prominent contractor, John Oliver Hogg. It was moved in 1898, 200 feet west, to accommodate the new construction of Rockcliffe and refinished as the home for J.J. Cruikshank's son, Charles A. Cruikshank and his new wife, Ella.

• Cliffside (8 Stillwell Place) is the 1913 Georgian Revival style mansion built for Wilson B. Pettibone, who made his fortune in lumber and was Hannibal's greatest philanthropist. It too is located on the site of an earlier mansion, the 1867 home of Cyrus O. Godfrey, who made his money in coal, and later the home of Richard H. Stillwell, who made his fortune in the meat packing industry. Stillwell created the small subdivision and street, known as Stillwell Place, that encouraged the development of the northwestern corner of the district.

The Maple Avenue Historic District's unique architectural legacy reflects the social diversity of Hannibal. The district's extended development largely coincided with the city's development. Long the premier residential neighborhood, the Maple Avenue Historic District was the home of Hannibal's wealthiest families as well as those of more modest means. Historically, the Maple Avenue Historic District properties were associated with numerous community leaders who were instrumental in Hannibal's commercial and industrial development, and several individual properties appear to be eligible for individual listing. Some major nonresidential properties are included in the Maple Avenue Historic District and they, along with the homes of prominent citizens, contributed to its importance as a center of social activity. Despite the fact that Hannibal was a segregated community throughout the period of significance, the district included some racially mixed areas as well as a significant African-American church. The Eighth and Center Street Baptist Church (listed in the National Register, 9/4/80) also served as the city's first African-American school. Other major buildings in the Maple Avenue Historic District include the Pilgrim Congregational Church and, as noted above, Central School which was a focus. The Maple Avenue Historic District contains examples of numerous styles that were popular in Hannibal during its period of significance as well as the concurrent trend to modify older house designs with updated stylistic treatments. Garages were added to many properties until 1950, after which construction halted within the district for nearly two decades. The Maple Avenue Historic District includes designs by noted architects including the regionally recognized Barnett, Haynes and Barnett; Howard VanDoren Shaw; and William B. Ittner, as well as local architects. Many Maple Avenue Historic District buildings also have been identified as the work of local builders and contractors, and the Maple Avenue Historic District contains the best collection of work by Hannibal's most prominent contracting dynasty, led by builder John Oliver Hogg.

Architectural Characteristics and Significance

The Maple Avenue Historic District is significant for Architecture. The Maple Avenue Historic District includes examples of the works of prominent architects from St. Louis and Chicago, as well as those of the major Hannibal designers and builders of the time. Many of the town's most significant architectural designs as well as a broad spectrum of residential styles popular in both the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are represented by the district properties. The housing stock ranges from the community's most distinguished mansions to simple vernacular types. Because of the unique topography of the Maple Avenue Historic District, many of the houses are situated on steep lots, either elevated high above the street or with walk-out basement levels across the back of the house. Stone retaining walls, the cliff sides, and consequent irregular spacing of residences, as well as grand vistas of the riverfront and most of historic Hannibal, help characterize the neighborhood. This first generation of residences dated from the early days of the settlement of Hannibal. On the outskirts of the young settlement, Edward C. McDonald built a large home and estate in the 1830s, and others built smaller houses prior to the Civil War; but these early buildings were replaced later, when the land was subdivided to form many of the residential lots of the Maple Avenue Historic District. While some current houses might date from this antebellum period, the period of significance for the Maple Avenue Historic District dates from 1850 (with the earliest verifiable date of construction for an extant building). This coincides with the beginning of the district's transformation from property on the outskirts of the community into an established, densely built, residential area. Although its popularity climaxed in the early twentieth century with the construction of the mansions of Rockcliffe (1000 Bird Street) and Cliffside (8 Stillwell Place), the Maple Avenue Historic District is unlike other Hannibal historic residential neighborhoods, because its continued popularity over several generations of owners meant that significant construction continued until 1950. Subdividing larger lots, moving or replacing earlier buildings with newer and more elaborate ones, as well as making major additions or modifications to the original design of houses, characterized the development of this neighborhood. The trend to modify original house designs (often with a larger porch, new wall treatments or different decorative details to update the style of the house) began as early as 1891, and coincided with much of the new house construction in the district.

The Maple Avenue Historic District forms a distinctive visual unit. It occupies one of Hannibal's tallest bluffs, rising from the riverfront just seven blocks to the east. Its most significant buildings not only help characterize this neighborhood, but also distinguish it from other neighborhoods in Hannibal: the three mansions on top of the bluff; Central School with its expansive lawn rising to the stone retaining wall at the base of the school facade; and the two churches, which help define the boundaries of the district along Broadway and Center Street. Its major streets parallel the north side of Hannibal's major commercial artery (Broadway), and the district extends to the point where Market and Broadway split at Maple Avenue. It is adjacent to the Central Park Historic District, which was the premier neighborhood in mid-nineteenth century Hannibal social circles, but is easily distinguished from that area by vacant land and by the change in topography as the bluff which forms the Maple Avenue Historic District begins its steep rise between the two districts. The north side of the district, behind Hill Street, drops off drastically on the back side of the bluff, and still remains an undeveloped, wooded area; while Section Street, aptly named since it was a section line, separates the district from the smaller and less architecturally distinctive houses to the west. While other neighborhoods in Hannibal have a few retaining walls, the preponderance of retaining walls in the Maple Avenue Historic District helps distinguish this neighborhood's most unique feature, its hillside development.

The churches and school notwithstanding, the Maple Avenue Historic District primarily consists of single family residences, with double houses and flats scattered throughout, as well as a number of early garages, several carriage houses and small stables. Few such outbuildings are extant anywhere else in Hannibal. There is one example of a Shotgun house (1225 Center Street) in the district, a style that was not very popular in Hannibal. Because of the fast pace of growth, double houses, which essentially have mirrored facade designs to accommodate two residential units, were popular and there are 13 in the Maple Avenue Historic District; but as rental properties most of these have been altered, usually with less sympathetic design treatments. Nonetheless, several nice examples remain including the vernacular design at 721-723 Center Street, the Folk Victorian building at 808-810 Center Street, the Italianate example at 900-902 Center Street, the brick Colonial Revival at 109-111 N. Maple Avenue, and the Craftsman style building at 205-207 N. Tenth Street. There are two buildings that seem to have been built as flats, both of which still retain a high degree of architectural integrity: the Italianate design at 1219 Center Street and the Colonial Revival design at 903-905 Center Street. While there are a number of American Foursquare plan houses in the Maple Avenue Historic District, the total represents only about 10 percent of the houses in the district. Most of these American Foursquare houses utilize Prairie style details (1009 Bird Street, 1229 Bird Street, 1236 Bird Street, 211 N. Eighth Street, 111 N. Ninth Street, 314 N. Section Street, and 426 N. Section) or Colonial Revival details (1012 Center Street, 723 Bird Street, and 1222 Hill Street). Especially rare in Hannibal are examples of carriage houses and residential stables, but the Maple Avenue Historic District includes four, each of which is quite distinctive: 124 N. Maple Street, 1000 Center Street, 1012 Center Street, and 1114 Center Street. As the automobile became popular, carriage houses and stables were often replaced with garages. Besides the additions made to lower levels to accommodate garages (such as the one at 1129 Bird Street), there are several examples of early garages that still retain their distinctive features, including their original doors, including three built between 1906 and 1913 (1015 Bird Street, 123-125 N. Maple Avenue, and 118 N. Ninth Street), and one built between 1913 and 1924 (807 Bird Street). There is also an excellent example of a brick, multi-bay garage, at 1212 Center Street.

House styles reflect the extended period of development in the Maple Avenue Historic District as well as most of the styles popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with most representing styles popular in the late nineteenth century. However, the earliest style represented in the district is the Federal style, on the brick, two-story house at 116 N. Ninth Street, a simple, yet easily identifiable example of that style. Of the late nineteenth century styles, there is one nice example of a Stick style house (124 N. Maple Avenue), and three examples of the Shingle style, two of which (923 Center Street and 1019 Bird Street) are locally known as Kansas City "Shirtwaists" (a local term used for Shingle style houses that share features also found on Queen Anne houses) with the other being frequently confused for a Queen Anne design because of its round, corner tower (806 Center Street). There are also six examples of the Second Empire style, with its characteristic mansard roof, of which the Ebert-Dulany House (1000 Center Street, National Register listed) and the exuberant house at 1020 Center Street are the best examples. Most of the late nineteenth century houses in the Maple Avenue Historic District are examples of Italianate, Queen Anne or Folk Victorian. Italianate style houses were also popular in the Central Park Historic District, a trend that continued when residences moved farther west, into this newer residential area. Some of the Maple Avenue Historic District's 17 Italianate examples have been altered, often by removing the decorative brackets under the eaves or with later porch replacements. These were often early twentieth century alterations intended to update the appearance of the house.

Among the best examples of the Italianate style in the Maple Avenue Historic District are: 1128 Broadway, 900-902 Center Street, 1219 Center Street, 807 Bird Street, 1015 Bird Street, 1234 Bird Street, and 1001 Hill Street. Of the 24 examples of the Queen Anne style, there are representatives of most subtypes, including a smaller cottage at 1004 Hill Street, a half-timbered example at 1021 Center Street, the elaborate home of J.O. Hogg at 1016 Center Street, the Free-Classic variant (915 Center Street, 3 Stillwell Place, and 9 Stillwell Place), the Spindlework subtype (911 Center Street and 809 Bird Street), and a very unusual example (909 Center Street). There are also several examples with the distinctive Queen Anne corner tower, all of which have been sided, except for the brick house at 816 Center Street. Of the other Late Victorian houses, most of these have less elaborate or vernacular plans but still utilize details characteristic of that era, such as the design of cottages (114 N. Ninth Street and 217 N. Tenth Street) and double house (808-810 Center Street).

As the twentieth century approached, simpler, cleaner lines became more popular, and the Colonial Revival style gained in popularity. The epitome of this style was the Neoclassical mansion at Rockcliffe (1000 Bird Street, listed on the National Register), but many other, less ostentatious examples also were built in the neighborhood. This style was popular for vernacular types, including: the flats built at 903-905 Center Street; the double house at 109-111 N. Maple Avenue; the American Foursquare plan houses at 1012 Center Street and 1222 Hill Street; and the small cottages at 1212 Hill Street, 318 N. Section Street and 416 N. Section Street. It was also popular on larger homes in the district, including: one that gives the appearance of being built in stages, like New England farmhouses (914 Center Street), one formal design at 113 N. Maple Avenue, and two that are readily identified by their prominent colonnaded porches (912 Center Street and 1116 Hill Street). The Maple Avenue Historic District also includes two examples of the Georgian Revival variation of the Colonial Revival style: one, an impressive brick house at 800 Center Street, and the other, the elaborate Cliffside mansion at 8 Stillwell Place. Elsewhere in the Maple Avenue Historic District, the Colonial Revival style's popularity is also evident in numerous Colonial Revival porch alterations to Italianate and Second Empire style houses.

In the early twentieth century, construction slowed in the district, primarily because of the lack of space. But the early twentieth century styles, American movements, the Craftsman and Prairie styles, are well represented in the district. Most examples of the Craftsman style simply utilize the characteristic features, but the neighborhood does include one Bungalow (210 N. Tenth Street) and two cottages (1215 Center Street and 1242 Bird Street). The two story house at 1112 Broadway is the best example of the use of Craftsman stylistic details on a two-story house, and the two-family flat, at 205-207 N. Tenth Street, is readily identified by its Craftsman knee braces supporting the shed entry roof and the vertical lights in the upper sashes of the windows. Prairie style houses liberally interpreted the style most often associated with Frank Lloyd Wright, usually by simply emphasizing the horizontal lines of the design, with simpler planes and wider eaves, such as is found at 1000 Hill Street, 1228 Hill Street and 1100 Center Street. This is also the case on the American Foursquare examples within the district (111 N. Eleventh Street, 211 N. Eighth Street, 1009 Bird Street, 1229 Bird Street, and 1236 Bird Street). However, two impressive examples which are more strictly Wrightian in their influence are located at 1001 Center Street and 1206 Center Street. There is also an excellent Prairie bungalow at 1241 Bird Street which represents the Prairie style's emphasis on horizontal lines. As with the Colonial Revival style, the popularity of these two styles also can be seen on the numerous Craftsman and Prairie style porch alterations on the district's older homes.

In addition to these styles, the Maple Avenue Historic District includes at least two examples of other popular twentieth century styles. The Tudor Revival remake at 1116 Center Street appears to be the best example of that style in Hannibal. The last house built in the Maple Avenue Historic District, at 714 Center Street, is an early example of the Minimal Traditional style, which blends the Craftsman features and Tudor Revival rooflines with the more horizontal approach popularized after World War II in the Ranch style.

While the available Hannibal city directories identified 13 different architects and approximately 300 different construction contractors, most of these were only listed in one directory. Because of the categorization utilized in the directories, it was often difficult to distinguish general contractors from simple craftsman, especially in the earlier directories. While it is likely that many of these individuals worked on buildings in the Maple Avenue Historic District, only a few buildings have been identified as the works of architects and local builders.

References

Manuscript Collections and Archives

Hagood, Roberta and J. Hurley, comps. Hannibal History Index. 1976-present. Joint Collection of the University of Missouri Western Historical Manuscript Collection and the State Historical Society of Missouri Manuscripts. State Historical Society of Missouri. Columbia, Missouri. (Microfilm, Hannibal Free Public Library, Hannibal, Mo.).

Hannibal, Missouri. Hannibal Free Public Library. Missouri Room.

Books

Chou, Steve. City of Hannibal, Hannibal, Missouri: From Riverboats to Ribbons of Concrete. N.p.: Curtis Media, 1983.

Greene, C. P., ed. A Mirror of Hannibal Containing A Most Complete and Authentic History of the City from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Day; Comprising Also A Most Perfect History of the Steamboat and Railroad Eras, and a Complete Geological Review of the Locality by Thos. M. Bacon Editor. A Word Picture of Hannibal: The Metropolis of Northeast Missouri, By Sidney J. Roy, Profusely Illustrated with Copperplate Reproductions of Views Taken Expressly for This Work, Portraying the Scenic Beauty of the Locality, Many of the City's Handsome Residences, and Numerous Other Attractive Features. A History of Commercial Organization, Giving a Correct Idea of the Commercial Resources of Hannibal and a Descriptive Summary of Its Many Enterprising, Influential and Prosperous Business Establishments. A Biographical Department Containing Family Biographies and Portraits of Two Hundred Leading Hannibal Citizens and Business Men. Containing Also Articles Contributed by Hannibal's Most Prominent Men and Women, Among Them Hon. W. A. Munger, Prof. R. B. D. Simonson. Revs. C. F. Drewes, Levi Marshall, C. B. Boving, C. J. Chase, E. P. Little, Jesse Chappell, Jas. Carlyon, Colonel John L Robards, Mrs. P. D. Fisher and Mrs. Lyman P. Munger. Hannibal, Mo.: C. P. Greene, 1905; Revised and edited by J. Hurley and Roberta (Roland) Hagood. Hannibal, Mo.: Hannibal Free Public Library, 1990.

Hagood, J. Hurley and Roberta (Roland). Hannibal Yesterdays: Historic Stories of Events, People, Landmarks and Happenings in and near Hannibal. Hannibal, Mo.: Hannibal Free Public Library, 1992.

________. The Story of Hannibal. Hannibal, Mo.: Hannibal Free Public Library, 1976.

Holcombe, R. I., comp. History of Marion County, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. Including a History of Its Townships, Towns, and Villages, Together with a Condensed History of Missouri; the City of St. Louis; a Reliable and Detailed History of Marion County — Its Pioneer Record, War History, Resources, Biographical Sketches and Portraits of Prominent Citizens; General and Local Statistics of Great Value, and a Large Amount of Legal and Miscellaneous Matter; Incidents and Reminiscences, Grave, Tragic and Humorous. 1884. Reprint with corrections and index. Hannibal, Mo.: Marion County Historical Society, 1979.

McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.

Missouri and Missourians Land of Contrasts and People of Achievement. 5 vols. Vols. 1 & 2 by Floyd Calvin Shoemaker. Chicago: The Lewis Publications Co., 1943.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Marion, Rails and Pike Counties, Missouri, Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties Together with Biographies and Portraits of All the Presidents of the United States. 1789 through 1892. 1895. Reprint with corrections and index, New London, Mo.: Rails County Book Co., 1982.

Stevens, Walter B., ed. Centennial History of Missouri (The Center State) One Hundred Years in the Union 1820-1921. St. Louis- Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1921.

Williams, Walter, ed. A History of Northeast Missouri. 3 vols. Chicago & New York: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1913.

Historic Surveys and Reports

Anton, Ruth. "Mark Twain Historic District." National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. Prepared for Hannibal Arts Council, Hannibal. Listed January 1978. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Baxter, Karen Bode and Volunteers for Marion County Historical Society. "Maple Avenue Historic Survey, Update." Architectural/Historic Inventory Form. Prepared for Marion County Historical Society. June 2001. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Crow, Hiawatha M.; Hamilton, Esley; and Denny, James M. "Eighth and Center Streets Baptist Church." National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. November 1979. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resources Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Hamilton, Esley. "Central Park Historic District." National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. Listed October 1982. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

________. "Dulany Historic District." National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. Prepared for Hannibal Arts Council, Hannibal. September 1982. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program. Jefferson City, Missouri.

Hamilton, Esley. "Dulany-Mahan House." Historic Preservation Certification Application Part 1 — Evaluation of Significance. September 1982. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resources Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

________. Hannibal as History. Hannibal, Mo.: Marion Co. Historical Society, 1985.

________. "Hannibal Central Business District Multiple Resource Nomination." 1986. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

________. "Rockcliffe Mansion." Prepared for Rockcliffe Mansion. December 1979. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Hamilton, Esley and Denny, James M. "Ebert-Dulany House" National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. September 1982. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resources Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Hannibal, Missouri Branch of the American Association of University Women. Women Whose Varied Lives Enriched the History of Hannibal, Missouri. By Maxine Carmichael and Rebecca Steffia, Historians. Hannibal, Mo., 1993. (Typewritten.) Missouri Room. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Longwisch, Cynthia H. "St Louis, Missouri, Public Schools of William B. Ittner Multiple Property Nomination." 1990. Stored at the Missouri Cultural Resource Inventory, Missouri Historic Preservation Program, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Articles

"Artist's Touch in Senger Home." The Quincy (Illinois) Herald-Whig, 24 August 1975, 1E. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Bloom, F.J. "Other Public Benefactions Made in Will.: In "W.B. Pettibone Dies, Funeral to Be Tuesday." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 22 October 1946. Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical Fire. Hannibal Free Public Library, Hannibal, Missouri.

"Brick Making Once an Active Industry Here with Several Plants." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, C7.

"Business and Industry." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section III. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 1. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library, Hannibal, Missouri.

"Central Elementary's Last Day." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 26 May 2001. 7A. Superintendent of Schools Private Collection. School File. John Bringer. Hannibal, Missouri.

"City Begins After 1811 Earthquake." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section I: "Hannibal as History." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 7. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"City Has Owned Light Plant Over 52 Years. Waterworks Since 1913." In "Hannibal's Utilities Are Widely Known." Hannibal Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, C2.

"City's First Gas Plant Built In 1859." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, CIS.

Darr, Bev. "Bluff City Factory Had Colorful History." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 8 February 2002, 1 A.

________. "Fire Destroys Old Shoe Factory." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 8 February 2002, 1 A.

"Decorative Brick Prime Feature of Church." In "Hannibal Arts Council 4th Annual Historic Architectural Tour, Hannibal, Missouri, Sunday May 2, 1982. Special Section. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 28 April 1982, 4. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Dempsey, Terrell. "Slaves Escaping From Missouri." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 27 February 2002, 2B-5B.

"Diversification Played Role in Development." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section III: Business & Industry. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 2. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Early History Goes Back to Settlements Prior to 1820; Plat Is Dated 1836." In "Hannibal as Shown in Century Old Plat." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 38, B6.

"1890 Account Glows." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section III: Business & Industry. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 7. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Fire Claims Memories and Bricks." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 9 February 2002, 4B.

"Former Marion Courthouse Built 8 Decades Ago." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, B13.

"Gave Hannibal Riverview Park, Other Benefactions." In "W. B. Pettibone Dies, Funeral to Be Tuesday." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 22 October 1946. Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal. Missouri.

"Glascock Important Developer of Hannibal." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section I: "Hannibal as History". Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 2. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Grimsley, Elizabeth. "Central's Faculty Finds Buried Treasure." Weekend Edition. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 2 June 2001, 9A. Missouri Room. Schools Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

________. "Memories Are All That Remain." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 9 February 2002, 1A

________. "School's Out, Permanently." Weekend Edition. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 2 June 2001, 1A. Missouri Room. Schools Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Hagood, Hurley and Roberta. "Moving with the Times in the 1800s: Streetcars." In Articles About the History of Hannibal. Missouri. " Scrapbook. Vol. 2. Compiled by J. Hurley Hagood & Roberta Hagood. Missouri Room. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

________. "Moving with the Times in the 1800s: Streetcars." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 17 August 1991, 9. Missouri Room. Streetcars Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Hagood, J. Hurley and Roberta. "Cliffside Mansion: A House of History." Hannibal Courier-Post, 9 January 1993, 9. Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Hagood, J. Hurley and Roberta, "from Mud and Muck to Cobblestones and Concrete: The evolution and development of Hannibal's Streets. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 8 June 1995,3.

Hagood, J. Hurley and Mitchell, Wilson. "Entering the Age of the Automobile." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 20 April 1991, 11. Missouri Room. Automobiles Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Hannibal as History." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section I. Hannibal (Missouri! Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 1. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal. Missouri.

"A Hannibal Historic Buildings Sampler." In "Mark Twain's Hannibal." Summer Vacation Guide. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 22 April 1986, 1-2. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Hannibal! Missouri's Seventh City in Population, Ranks Fourth in Industry..." In "100 Years of Industry & Progress." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, Cl.

"Hannibal Schools Growing in 1908." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section I:

"Hannibal as History." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 2. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Hannibal Schools Rank Well with Best Ones in the Land." In "75th Anniversary and Industrial Number." Hannibal Morning Journal, [1913], 4.

Henley, Danny. "Only One Time Capsule Offers Historical Insights." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 24 May 2001, 1A. Superintendent of Schools Private Collection. School File. John Bringer. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Historical Building Saved by Ambitious Group." In "Weekend Historic Building Tour Features Architectural Works, Historic Architectural Tour." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 8 May 1980, 7. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Hogg House Transformed with Care." In "Historic Architectural Tour." Special Section. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 23 May 1985, 5. Missouri Room. Architectural, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"House Undergoing Restoration Work." In "Hannibal Arts Council 4th Annual Historic Architectural Tour, Hannibal, Missouri. Sunday May 2, 1982." Special Section. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 28 April 1982, 8. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"In the Early Days, Hannibal Was a Tobacco Center." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 30 June 2001, 6B. Reprinted from "Special Edition." Hannibal Courier-Post, 1938.

"John B. Helm Was Builder of Many Business Houses Here In Mid-19th Century." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 38,14.

"Joseph Bassen Recalls Some of Hannibal's Landmarks in 1872 When He Came to City." Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Kettering-Loomis House Includes Intricate Stairway." In "Historic Architectural Tour." Special Section. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 23 May 1985, 6. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal. Missouri.

"Landmark In Ruins." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 9 February 2002, p. 8B.

"Light and Water Plants Worth Over 2 Millions: Noted for Efficiency." Hannibal Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, C2.

"Lumber Industry Built Hannibal's Economic Frame." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post" Section III: Business & Industry. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 3. Missouri Room. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Mark Twain's Hannibal." Summer Vacation Guide. Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 22 April 1986, 1-2. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Mayors of Hannibal." n. d. Hannibal History Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Mr. Pettibone's Trust for Riverview." n. d. Clipping in Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Original Site of City Contained in 640 Acre Grant to Abraham Bird." In "Hannibal as Shown in Century Old Plat." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 38, B6.

"Progress Shown in Hannibal by Negro Churches." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post. 30 April 1938, sec. 8, p.20.

"River, Creek Attract Settlers." In "1838 Anniversary Edition 1998, 150 Years, The Hannibal Courier-Post." Section I: "Hannibal as History." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 25 August 1988, 7. Missouri Room. Hannibal History. Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Starke Home Now Stands Restored." In "Weekend Historic Building Tour Features Architectural Works, Historic Architectural Tour." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 8 May 1980, 6. Missouri Room. Architecture, Historic, Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Time Capsule Also Discovered at Central Elementary School." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 22 May 2001, 3. Superintendent of Schools Private Collection. School File. John Bringer. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Utility's Development through Nearly Eighty Years, Has Been Notable." In "City's First Gas Plant Built in 1859." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 30 June 1938, CIS.

"W. B. Pettibone Dies, Funeral to Be Tuesday." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 22 October 1946. Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Whelan, Linda. "Pettibone Home Has Fine Woods." Hannibal (Missouri) Courier-Post, 5 May 1979, 11. Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Wilson B. Pettibone." Clipping Missouri Room. Pettibone, Wilson B., Vertical File. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

"Yesterday's Lighting." Clipping in Missouri Room. Hannibal Free Public Library. Hannibal, Missouri.

Karen Bode Baxter, preservation consultant, and Mandy Wagoner, research assistant, Maple Avenue Historic District, Marion County, Hannibal, MO, nomination document, 2002, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.

Maple Avenue Historic District Map

Street Names
10th Street • 11th Street • 7th Street • 8th Street • 9th Street • Bird Street • Broadway • Center Street • Dulany Street • Hill Street • Main Street • Maple Avenue • North Street • Section Street • Stillwell Place

**Information is deemed reliable but not guaranteed. You should independently verify any information you use for decision making.
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