New Haven Residential Historic District
The New Haven Residential Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [†] Adaptation copyright © 2010, The Gombach Group.
The New Haven Residential Historic District is located along Wall Street and Maupin Avenue in the community of New Haven, Franklin County (1990 population 1,757). The New Haven Residential Historic District contains twenty-six contributing buildings, five noncontributing buildings, and one noncontributing site. Of the contributing buildings the majority are dwellings, but the New Haven Residential Historic District also includes buildings originally used for commercial purposes (some of which were later converted to dwellings), one industrial building (the Langenberg Hat Factory), three garages, one shed, and servants quarters. The majority of the dwellings were built between circa 1880 and circa 1930 and display the Italianate, Colonial Revival, and Bungalow styles. The five noncontributing buildings are three garages/carports, one mobile home, and one shed; the noncontributing site is Thurman Park.
New Haven is approximately sixty-five miles west of St. Louis on the south bank of the Missouri River. It is accessed by State Route 100 and is eighteen miles northwest of the Franklin County seat of Union. New Haven's residential area is on a bluff overlooking the Missouri River at an elevation of 580 to 600 feet above sea level. Some one hundred feet below the bluff is the community's historic commercial area and the right-of-way of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. The New Haven Residential Historic District extends along and to the south of the bluff on Wall Street and Maupin Avenue.
The majority of the properties within the New Haven Residential Historic District are dwellings constructed primarily between ca.1880 and 1930. Originally known as Miller's Landing, New Haven was platted and lots laid out in 1856. The original section of the town included only the area below the bluff and adjacent to the Missouri River. Another addition was made to the community the following year on the bluff area including sections of what are now Wall Street and Maupin Avenue. The New Haven Residential Historic District's oldest remaining building, the Dr. John S. Leewright House at 101 Wall Street, was completed in 1857 on the edge of the bluff overlooking the commercial area below. This two-story brick dwelling was designed in a central passage I-House plan and retains much of its original design.
Over the next several decades, numerous buildings were constructed south along Maupin (originally Fillmore) Avenue. The majority of these were brick and frame dwellings erected in the 1860s to the 1880s. Residences which remain from these decades include the Lillie Patton House at 1005 Maupin Avenue and the Richard Schure House at 1015 Maupin Avenue. The Lillie Patton House is a two-story brick dwelling built in a rectangular plan with Italianate influences. The dwelling at 1015 Maupin Avenue was also designed with Italianate influences including arched windows and a dentiled cornice.
Between 1880 and 1890, New Haven's population almost doubled from 471 to 767 residents and extensive residential construction took place along Maupin Avenue and Wall Streets. Several dwellings were built in the Italianate style of the late 19th century. The most notable of these is the George Wolff Sr. House built at 105 Wall Street in 1880. This two-story brick dwelling was constructed with a projecting two-story bay on the main facade, arched windows, and eave brackets. Although the original porch columns have been replaced, the overall design and form of the dwelling is intact. Another example from this period is the John P. Altheide House at 1006 Maupin Avenue. This two-story brick dwelling was enlarged into its present form in the 1890s and retains its original arched windows and one-story porch with milled columns.
During the 1910s and the 1920s, several dwellings were designed with Colonial Revival influences. The most notable of these is the Edward Hebbeler House, completed in 1916 at 107 Wall Street. This property is a two-story brick dwelling, and has original multi-light windows and a full-width porch with Doric motif columns. Influences of the Colonial Revival style are also evident in early 20th century American Foursquare dwellings such as the Emil Wolff House at 1001 Maupin Avenue, and the dwelling at 1002 Maupin Avenue. The Emil Wolff House is a brick dwelling featuring a large wraparound porch with brick columns. Examples of the Bungalow style were built in the New Haven Residential Historic District in the 1910s and 1920s. These dwellings are typically horizontal in form with wide eaves, large front porches, gable roofs, and of both brick and frame construction. The dwelling at 103 Wall Street is representative of this style and retains its original front porch with tapered wood columns on brick piers. Associated with several of the dwellings are outbuildings such as sheds and garages. Most of these are sited at the rear of the dwellings, and five contribute to the character of the district. These outbuildings are generally of frame construction with gable or hipped roofs, and exteriors of weatherboard siding.
Several buildings in the New Haven Residential Historic District were originally built as commercial buildings but were later converted into dwellings. One of these is the William H. Otto Furniture Store which was built ca. 1881 at 1004 Maupin Avenue. This one-story false front frame store was designed with a large shed roof porch on the main facade and with a decorative sheet metal cornice. This building has not been altered and retains its original design. At 1017 Maupin Avenue is the two-story Central Hotel, built ca. 1885. This frame building was designed with pedimented window cornices, a recessed entrance, and a false front parapet wall. Although remodeled for apartments on the interior, the exterior retains much of its original design.
The Langenberg Hat Factory is the New Haven Residential Historic District's only industrial building and is composed of several buildings constructed or remodeled from the late 19th to the early 20th century. The original section is a ca.1890, two-story brick commercial building which was extensively remodeled in 1928. A large wing was added to this building and it was designed with large expanses of multi-light steel windows, a simple parapet wall, and undecorated brick exterior. This building was not been extensively remodeled since the mid-20th century and it occupies the southeast corner of Wall Street and Maupin Avenue.
Construction within the New Haven Residential Historic District largely ceased after the 1920s. The only major development in the district after 1945 was the establishment of Thurman Park ca.1960 on Wall Street. Thurman Park is comprised of a .20 acre lot on the bluff overlooking the Missouri River. The park contains several benches and a pavilion, and is a non-contributing site in the district. Today, the New Haven Residential Historic District retains much of its early 20th century appearance. Most properties continue to remain owner occupied and the majority retain their original form and plan. Demolition in the New Haven Residential Historic District has been largely confined to the area adjacent to the Langenberg Hat Factory where several dwellings were demolished to make way for parking lots. Rehabilitation of dwellings in the New Haven Residential Historic District has increased in recent years and presently the Central Hotel is undergoing restoration for commercial use. The New Haven Residential Historic District is the community's most intact collection of 19th and early 20th century architecture and it retains its sense of time and place from this era.
The New Haven Residential Historic District is located in the town of New Haven, Missouri. New Haven is located in Franklin County, on the south side of the Missouri River. The New Haven Residential Historic District is significant under National Register criterion C for its collection of dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. An architectural survey of New Haven was completed in 1992 and this area along Maupin Avenue and Wall Street was identified as containing the community's largest collection of contiguous pre-1945 dwellings. Along these streets are dwellings which date primarily from 1857 to the 1920s. Within the New Haven Residential Historic District are the town's oldest dwellings and most representative examples of the Italianate and Colonial Revival styles. The New Haven Residential Historic District contains twenty-six contributing and six non-contributing properties. Most properties retain their original form and plan, and only five of the dwellings have added siding materials. These added siding materials are the only major alterations to these five dwellings, and they retain sufficient integrity to be considered contributing to the district. In addition to the dwellings, the New Haven Residential Historic District also includes three buildings originally used for commercial businesses, and one industrial property, the Langenberg Hat Factory. The appearance of the district has not been significantly altered in recent decades, and it retains much of its historic character.
See also: City of New Haven: Beginnings
The majority of the buildings in the New Haven Residential Historic District were built between ca.1870 and 1900. The majority of these were brick and frame dwellings such as the Lillie Patton House at 1005 Maupin Avenue, the Richard Schure House at 1015 Maupin Avenue, the John P. Altheide House at 1006 Maupin Avenue, and the George Wolff Sr. House built at 105 Wall Street. These four dwellings were built with the influences of the Italianate style and retain much of their original design and detailing.
The German immigration to New Haven was part of the widespread settlement of Germans to the Missouri River valley in the mid-19th century. Motivated by political and economic change then occurring in central Europe, many German families were drawn to Missouri by the descriptions written by native German Gottfried Duden. Duden arrived in Missouri in 1824 and wrote a series of letters which provided a basis for a report later published in 1829. Duden's report proved popular, and many Germans found his description of the American Midwest attractive. Upon arriving in St. Louis via New Orleans, immigrants traveled westward into the Missouri River valley. Many chose to travel by steamboat and the communities of Washington, New Haven, and Hermann received many of these immigrant families.
The increase in population during the 1880s resulted in additional residential subdivisions along Maupin Avenue. Additions to New Haven were platted along either side of the street in 1882, 1883, and 1892. Most lots were fifty to seventy-five feet in width and from the mid-1880s to the early 1900s the majority of the existing dwellings along Maupin Avenue and Wall Street were built. Many of these dwellings were constructed by New Haven's merchants and professionals in the prevailing styles of the period. Notable brick dwellings were constructed by miller George Wolff Sr. and his sons on Wall Street, and by merchant John Altheide on Maupin Avenue. Along with Miller Street, Maupin Avenue was the primary north/south corridors leading to the downtown area.
The prosperity of New Haven was reflected in the creation of its first bank, the Bank of New Haven, chartered in 1889. During the 1890s the town's population increased by an additional 100 residents and new dwellings were erected throughout the community. In October of 1894, a fire destroyed early town records, as well as a large portion of the original downtown business district. Rebuilding occurred soon after and many of the existing buildings along Front Street were constructed in these years. The Sanborn Fire Insurance Company mapped the downtown area and Maupin Avenue in 1895. Although dwellings dominated the area on the bluff, a few businesses operated along Maupin Avenue. These businesses included the Central Hotel, a tin shop and hardware store, and a cigar factory. To the south, the Bagby Nursery Company operated a large tree farm to the east of Maupin Avenue.
By 1900, New Haven boasted a population of 883 residents and this number would remain relatively stable over the next several decades. The commercial area contained a solid row of one- and two-story brick buildings occupied by prosperous businesses. From 1910 to 1925, additional residential development occurred in the area west of the commercial area along Olive Street, Selma Street, Thurman Street, and Locust Street. During the early 20th century, several notable dwellings were designed in the Colonial Revival style, the most notable of which were the Edward Hebbeler House at 107 Wall Street, the Emil Wolff House at 1001 Maupin Avenue, and the dwelling at 1002 Maupin Avenue. Other dwellings built in these years included frame vernacular forms such as Pyramid Square and American Foursquare designs as well as frame and brick veneer Bungalows and Craftsman style dwellings.
Several buildings in the New Haven Residential Historic District were originally built as commercial buildings but were later converted into dwellings. These include the William H. Otto Furniture Store at 1004 Maupin Avenue, and the Central Hotel at 1017 Maupin Avenue. Both of these buildings retain much of their original Italianate detailing and design. The Langenberg Hat Factory is the New Haven Residential Historic District's only industrial building and is composed of several buildings constructed and remodeled into its present form in 1928. This building has not been extensively remodeled since the mid-20th century and it occupies the southeast corner of Wall Street and Maupin Avenue. Several new churches were built along Maupin Avenue and Miller Streets including St. Peter's Lutheran Church in 1915, and the stone Romanesque Revival Assumption Church built in 1924. From the late 1920s to just after World War II, there was little residential construction in New Haven.
In the past several decades, most building construction in New Haven has occurred near Highway 100, and this area continues to be the center for commercial and residential growth. To promote the historic resources of the community, the New Haven Historical Society has been active in publishing several books on New Haven history, and encouraging new businesses in the commercial area. Within the New Haven Residential Historic District, several buildings are presently undergoing rehabilitation including the Central Hotel.
The architectural and historical survey of New Haven in 1992 identified this area as containing the town's largest concentration of contiguous pre-1945 residential architecture. The historical growth and development of the community extended from the Missouri River and the adjacent bluff, westward down Wall Street, Maupin Avenue, and Miller Street. The dwellings which were built along Miller Street are primarily modest vernacular designs of frame construction, and many have been altered with added porch materials, siding materials and additions. By contrast, Wall Street and the 1000 block of Maupin Avenue contain notable examples of the Italianate and Colonial Revival styles, and the majority of these properties retain integrity of construction. Demolition within this area has been confined to the lots south of the Langenberg Hat Factory where several dwellings were demolished for surface parking.
The predominant house forms in the New Haven Residential Historic District reflect the Italianate style of the late 19th century, and the Colonial Revival style of the early 20th century. In addition to these styles, there is also a Greek Revival influenced dwelling at 101 Wall Street, a Bungalow style dwelling at 107 Wall Street, and a Queen Anne influenced dwelling at 111 Wall Street. The oldest dwelling in the New Haven Residential Historic District is the Dr. John S. Leewright House built at 101 Wall Street in 1857. Designed with influences of the Greek Revival style, this dwelling features a central-hall plan, wood lintels over the windows, and an entrance with multi-light sidelights and transom. At the turn of the century, a new two-story porch was added to the main facade of the dwelling.
From 1860 to the 1890s, the most common residential style built in the New Haven Residential Historic District was the Italianate style. Examples of this style were built of both frame and brick. Common details of this style include decorative porches on the main facade, segmental arched windows, window hood molding, and corbelled brick or sheet metal cornices at the roofline. Representative of this style is the George Wolff Sr. House, completed in 1880 at 105 Wall Street. This two-story brick dwelling features original segmental arched windows, an original door with an arched transom, and a bracketed cornice at both the porch and roofline.
Another notable Italianate style dwelling is the John P. Altheide House built ca. 1880 at 1006 Maupin Avenue. The original gable front section of this dwelling was designed with segmental arched windows, and a dentiled frame cornice at the roofline. A lateral wing added ca.1900 maintained the dwelling's Italianate detailing. More modest examples of the Italianate style include the Lillie Patton House at 1005 Maupin Avenue built ca.1860, and the Richard Schure House built ca.1885. The Lillie Patton House was designed in a rectangular form with a hipped roof and features segmental arched windows. The Richard Schure House at 1015 Maupin Avenue also features segmental arched windows, and a corbelled brick cornice at the roofline. The Italianate influence is also evident in the two-story frame Central Hotel, constructed ca.1885 at 1017 Maupin Avenue. This building retains its original recessed entrance, and over the entrance and windows are pedimented frame, window hood moldings.
During the early 20th century, the influence of the Colonial Revival style was significant in the town's residential development. The Colonial Revival style marked a return back to symmetrical forms, and the use of classical orders and detailing. The most notable example of the Colonial Revival style in the New Haven Residential Historic District is the Edward Hebbeler House completed in 1916 at 107 Wall Street. This dwelling was designed with a full-width one-story porch displaying square Doric design columns. The main entrance features five-light sidelights, and the dwelling retains original nine-over-nine wood sash windows. A subtype of the Colonial Revival style, the American Foursquare, is represented by several dwellings. American Foursquare dwellings are rectangular in form with hipped roofs, and generally feature one-story porches, and classically inspired detailing. An example of this form is the Emil Wolff dwelling at 1001 Maupin Avenue. Completed in 1922, this dwelling was designed with a large wraparound porch with square brick piers and a brick railing. Another example of this form is the United Methodist Church Parsonage completed ca.1915 at 1002 Maupin Avenue. This dwelling is of frame construction, and has an entry porch with tapered wood posts on brick piers, and cornices over the windows.
The New Haven Residential Historic District is the largest concentration of intact pre-1945 residential architecture in the community. Unlike other sections of the town, these blocks along Maupin Avenue and Wall Street retain a high degree of original architectural character and integrity. The New Haven Residential Historic District's built environment is reflective of New Haven's prosperity at the turn of the century when it was a thriving Missouri River port. The buildings within the New Haven Residential Historic District maintain the community's sense of time and place from this era.
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† Philip Thomason, Thomason Associates and Steven E. Mitchell, DSP/DNR Historic Preservation Program, New Haven Residential Historic District, Franklin County, Missouri, nomination document, 1999, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.